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Title: Geometric Shadows
Description:
Students will identify objects as translucent, transparent, or opaque. Upon seeing the shadow of the opaque object, students will identify the geometric figure created by the shadow.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMSU Project.
Standard(s): [S1] (4) 3: Recognize how light interacts with transparent, translucent, and opaque materials. [MA2013] (0) 19: Identify shapes as twodimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or threedimensional ("solid"). [KG3] [MA2013] (0) 20: Analyze and compare two and threedimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices or "corners"), and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). [KG4] [MA2013] (1) 19: Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. [1G1] [MA2013] (1) 20: Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as "right rectangular prism.") [1G2] [MA2013] (2) 24: Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. (Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring.) Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. [2G1] [MA2013] (4) 26: Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. [4G1] [MA2013] (4) 27: Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. [4G2] [MA2013] (0) 17: Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. [KG1] [MA2013] (0) 18: Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. [KG2] [MA2013] (0) 19: Identify shapes as twodimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or threedimensional ("solid"). [KG3] [MA2013] (1) 20: Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as "right rectangular prism.") [1G2] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 16: Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. [2MD3] [MA2013] (2) 26: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares; describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc.; and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, or four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. [2G3]
Subject: Mathematics (K  4), or Science (4)
Title: Geometric Shadows
Description: Students will identify objects as translucent, transparent, or opaque. Upon seeing the shadow of the opaque object, students will identify the geometric figure created by the shadow.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMSU Project.
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Title: Seeds: How They Grow
Description:
The students will be collecting, germinating and planting seeds to show the process of plant growth. The students will be recording the information in their science journal. In addition, the students will be observing the water cycle as the plants grow in the cups.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
Standard(s): [ELA2013] (2) 34: Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See Grade 2 Language standards 35 and 37 for specific expectations.) [SL.2.6] [S1] (2) 5: Identify the relationship of structure to function in plants, including roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. [S1] (2) 9: Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. [ELA] (2) 4: Demonstrate comprehension of secondgrade reading materials across the curriculum, including drawing simple conclusions, classifying ideas and things, identifying sequence, and retelling directions and information from informational and functional reading materials. [ELA] (2) 11: Write words and sentences legibly with proper spacing in manuscript. [T1] P&P (2) 6: Identify humanmade and natural resources in the world. [S1] (3) 7: Describe the life cycle of plants, including seed, seed germination, growth, and reproduction. [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (0) 15: Directly compare two objects, with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of" or "less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. [KMD2] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (1) 16: Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. [1MD2] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 16: Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. [2MD3] [MA2013] (2) 17: Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. [2MD4]
Subject: English Language Arts (2), or English Language Arts (2), or Mathematics (K  2), or Science (2  3), or Social Studies (2)
Title: Seeds: How They Grow
Description: The students will be collecting, germinating and planting seeds to show the process of plant growth. The students will be recording the information in their science journal. In addition, the students will be observing the water cycle as the plants grow in the cups.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
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Title: Connecting With Coordinates
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This lesson will allow students to practice plotting points on a grid. Students will have an opportunity to play a coordinate game. This lesson is handson and allows for cooperative learning.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 17: Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. [KG1] [MA2013] (0) 18: Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. [KG2] [MA2013] (0) 19: Identify shapes as twodimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or threedimensional ("solid"). [KG3] [MA2013] (0) 20: Analyze and compare two and threedimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices or "corners"), and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). [KG4] [MA2013] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1MD4] [MA2013] (1) 19: Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. [1G1] [MA2013] (1) 20: Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as "right rectangular prism.") [1G2] [MA2013] (1) 21: Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares; describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters; and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. [1G3] [MA2013] (2) 1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2OA1] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 22: Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot where the horizontal scale is marked off in wholenumber units. [2MD9] [MA2013] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with singleunit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple puttogether, takeapart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2MD10]
Subject: Mathematics (K  2)
Title: Connecting With Coordinates
Description: This lesson will allow students to practice plotting points on a grid. Students will have an opportunity to play a coordinate game. This lesson is handson and allows for cooperative learning.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
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Title: The Horizons of Soil in My Backyard
Description:
Students will work in small groups to dig holes 1 meter deep. Students will work with measurements as they dig and measure. Students will observe the different types of soil and how the soil changes as they dig. Students will write and draw in their journals about the soil horizons. The need for soil as an important natural resource will be discussed. This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project, funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
Standard(s): [S1] (2) 7: Identify geological features as mountains, valleys, plains, deserts, lakes, rivers, and oceans. [T1] P&P (2) 6: Identify humanmade and natural resources in the world. [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (0) 15: Directly compare two objects, with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of" or "less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. [KMD2] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (1) 16: Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. [1MD2] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 16: Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. [2MD3] [MA2013] (2) 17: Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. [2MD4]
Subject: Mathematics (K  2), or Science (2), or Social Studies (2)
Title: The Horizons of Soil in My Backyard
Description: Students will work in small groups to dig holes 1 meter deep. Students will work with measurements as they dig and measure. Students will observe the different types of soil and how the soil changes as they dig. Students will write and draw in their journals about the soil horizons. The need for soil as an important natural resource will be discussed. This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project, funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
Thinkfinity Lesson Plans
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Title: Keeping in Balance
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In this lesson for grades 1 and 2, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on patterns and relations that can be developed from the exploration of balance, mass, length of the mass arm, and the position of the fulcrum.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Keeping in Balance
Description: In this lesson for grades 1 and 2, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on patterns and relations that can be developed from the exploration of balance, mass, length of the mass arm, and the position of the fulcrum. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2
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Title: Using the Number Line to Compare
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students determine differences using the number line to compare lengths. Because this model is based on linear measurement, it is a distinctly different representation from the models presented in the first two lessons of this unit. At the end of this lesson, children are encouraged to predict differences and answer puzzles involving subtraction.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 3: Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 020 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). [KCC3] [MA2013] (0) 4: Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. [KCC4] [MA2013] (0) 5: Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 120, count out that many objects. [KCC5] [MA2013] (0) 16: Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.) [KMD3] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Using the Number Line to Compare
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students determine differences using the number line to compare lengths. Because this model is based on linear measurement, it is a distinctly different representation from the models presented in the first two lessons of this unit. At the end of this lesson, children are encouraged to predict differences and answer puzzles involving subtraction. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2
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Title: The Area of Things...
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students have opportunities to recognize and use the attributes of length and area using nonstandard units. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (1) 16: Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. [1MD2] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 22: Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot where the horizontal scale is marked off in wholenumber units. [2MD9]
Subject: Language Arts,Mathematics Title: The Area of Things...
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students have opportunities to recognize and use the attributes of length and area using nonstandard units. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2
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Title: Ladybug Lengths
Description:
This lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, captures students interests, provides an introduction to and practice with the measurable attributes of length, and assesses student knowledge. The experience focuses student attention on the attributes of length and gives students the opportunity to develop knowledge of and skills in using nonstandard units of measurement. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2]
Subject: Language Arts,Mathematics Title: Ladybug Lengths
Description: This lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, captures students interests, provides an introduction to and practice with the measurable attributes of length, and assesses student knowledge. The experience focuses student attention on the attributes of length and gives students the opportunity to develop knowledge of and skills in using nonstandard units of measurement. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2
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Title: The Length of My Feet
Description:
This lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, focuses students attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (1) 16: Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. [1MD2] [MA2013] (1) 17: Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks. [1MD3] [MA2013] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1MD4] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2] [MA2013] (2) 16: Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. [2MD3]
Subject: Language Arts,Mathematics Title: The Length of My Feet
Description: This lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, focuses students attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2
Thinkfinity Informational Materials
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Title: Measurement Web Links
Description:
This collection of Web links, reviewed and presented by Illuminations, offers teachers and students information about and practice in concepts related to measurement. Users can read the Illuminations Editorial Board's review of each Web site, or choose to link directly to the sites.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 14: Describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. [KMD1] [MA2013] (1) 15: Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. [1MD1] [MA2013] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2MD1] [MA2013] (2) 15: Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. [2MD2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Measurement Web Links
Description: This collection of Web links, reviewed and presented by Illuminations, offers teachers and students information about and practice in concepts related to measurement. Users can read the Illuminations Editorial Board's review of each Web site, or choose to link directly to the sites. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

