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Title: Symmetries II: Conclusions
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students reflect on what they learned in the three previous lessons. Eight thought questions (with a link to the answers) are provided.
Standard(s): [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 9: Analyze works of visual art and architecture for mathematical relationships. (Alabama)
Subject: Mathematics Title: Symmetries II: Conclusions
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students reflect on what they learned in the three previous lessons. Eight thought questions (with a link to the answers) are provided. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Describing Reflections
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In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students learn how reflections work and what happens when two or more reflections are applied one after the other. They use interactive Java applets to examine the reflection of a point and how to describe reflections.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Describing Reflections
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students learn how reflections work and what happens when two or more reflections are applied one after the other. They use interactive Java applets to examine the reflection of a point and how to describe reflections. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Exploring the Isometric Drawing Tool
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In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students explore using an isometric drawing tool and gain practice and experience in manipulating drawings. They explore polyhedra using different representations and perspectives.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (6) 24: Represent threedimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. [6G4] [MA2013] (7) 12: Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. [7G2] [MA2013] (7) 13: Describe the twodimensional figures that result from slicing threedimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. [7G3] [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 38: Identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of threedimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects. [GGMD4]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Exploring the Isometric Drawing Tool
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students explore using an isometric drawing tool and gain practice and experience in manipulating drawings. They explore polyhedra using different representations and perspectives. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
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Title: Finding What Doesn't Change
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In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students predict the effect of a rotation through a given angle. They also learn to predict the effect of two or more rotations performed one after the other, and they find angles that leave a figure unchanged.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Finding What Doesn't Change
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students predict the effect of a rotation through a given angle. They also learn to predict the effect of two or more rotations performed one after the other, and they find angles that leave a figure unchanged. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Symmetries I
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In this unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, investigate rotational symmetry. They learn about the mathematical properties of rotations and have an opportunity to make their own designs.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 7: Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. [GCO7] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 14: Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor. [GSRT1]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Symmetries I
Description: In this unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, investigate rotational symmetry. They learn about the mathematical properties of rotations and have an opportunity to make their own designs. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Symmetries II
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In this unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, students use Java applets to investigate reflection, mirror, or bilateral symmetry. They learn about the mathematical properties of mirror symmetry and have a chance to create designs with mirror symmetry.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 7: Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. [GCO7] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 14: Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor. [GSRT1] [MA2013] GEO (912) 15: Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. [GSRT2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 16: Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the angleangle (AA) criterion for two triangles to be similar. [GSRT3]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Symmetries II
Description: In this unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, students use Java applets to investigate reflection, mirror, or bilateral symmetry. They learn about the mathematical properties of mirror symmetry and have a chance to create designs with mirror symmetry. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Symmetries III
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This lesson, from Illuminations, helps students to understand how translations work and what happens when two or more translations are applied one after the other. Students discover that all band ornaments have translational symmetry and all wallpaper patterns have translational symmetry in at least two directions.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 15: Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. [GSRT2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 41: Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost, working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).* [GMG3] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 9: Analyze works of visual art and architecture for mathematical relationships. (Alabama)
Subject: Mathematics Title: Symmetries III
Description: This lesson, from Illuminations, helps students to understand how translations work and what happens when two or more translations are applied one after the other. Students discover that all band ornaments have translational symmetry and all wallpaper patterns have translational symmetry in at least two directions. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Symmetries IV
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This lesson, from Illuminations, helps students to understand and identify glide reflections. With the help of a Java applet, students construct glide reflections using a translation and a reflection. Students then identify glide reflections from groups of band ornaments and wallpaper patterns.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Symmetries IV
Description: This lesson, from Illuminations, helps students to understand and identify glide reflections. With the help of a Java applet, students construct glide reflections using a translation and a reflection. Students then identify glide reflections from groups of band ornaments and wallpaper patterns. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Recognizing Transformations
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This lesson introduces students to the world of symmetry and rotation in figures and patterns. Students learn how to recognize and classify symmetry in decorative figures and frieze patterns, and get the chance to create and classify their own figures and patterns using JavaSketchpad applets.
Standard(s): [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Recognizing Transformations
Description: This lesson introduces students to the world of symmetry and rotation in figures and patterns. Students learn how to recognize and classify symmetry in decorative figures and frieze patterns, and get the chance to create and classify their own figures and patterns using JavaSketchpad applets. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Geoboard Paper
Description:
This reproducible geoboard grid, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to complete geoboard activities using pencils and paper.
Standard(s): [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Geoboard Paper
Description: This reproducible geoboard grid, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to complete geoboard activities using pencils and paper. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
Thinkfinity Interactive Games
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Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Visualizing Transformations
Description:
The interactive figures in this fourpart example from Illuminations allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards of School Mathematics (PSSM). The eexamples are part of the electronic version of the PSSM document. Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath investigations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Visualizing Transformations
Description: The interactive figures in this fourpart example from Illuminations allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards of School Mathematics (PSSM). The eexamples are part of the electronic version of the PSSM document. Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath investigations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
Thinkfinity Learning Activities
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Title: Shape Cutter
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This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to explore how they can decompose shapes and recompose them to make other shapes. Students draw and cut shapes, and also use slides, turns, and flips to move the cut pieces around.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (0) 17: Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. [KG1] [MA2013] (1) 19: Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. [1G1] [MA2013] (1) 21: Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares; describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters; and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. [1G3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Shape Cutter
Description: This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to explore how they can decompose shapes and recompose them to make other shapes. Students draw and cut shapes, and also use slides, turns, and flips to move the cut pieces around. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
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Title: Frieze Patterns
Description:
Students can experiment with the seven classes of Frieze patterns with this activity. They can explore the transformations that constitute each of the seven categories.
Standard(s): [MA2013] GEO (912) 1: Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc. [GCO1] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Frieze Patterns
Description: Students can experiment with the seven classes of Frieze patterns with this activity. They can explore the transformations that constitute each of the seven categories. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12
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Title: Cyclic Figures
Description:
Students will recognize rotation symmetry in figures and examining various rotation symmetries.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Cyclic Figures
Description: Students will recognize rotation symmetry in figures and examining various rotation symmetries. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
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Title: Dihedral Figures
Description:
Students will recognize dihedral symmetry and reflections in figures and examining various symmetries.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 15: Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. [GSRT2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Dihedral Figures
Description: Students will recognize dihedral symmetry and reflections in figures and examining various symmetries. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12
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Title: Isometric Drawing Tool
Description:
Create dynamic drawings on isometric dot paper with this interactive tool. Draw 2D and 3D figures using edges, faces, or cubes that you can shift, rotate, color, or decompose.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (3) 24: Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. [3G1] [MA2013] (3) 25: Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. [3G2] [MA2013] (4) 26: Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. [4G1] [MA2013] (4) 27: Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. [4G2] [MA2013] (5) 25: Understand that attributes belonging to a category of twodimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. [5G3] [MA2013] (5) 26: Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. [5G4] [MA2013] (6) 22: Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = lwh and V = Bh to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. [6G2] [MA2013] (6) 24: Represent threedimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. [6G4] [MA2013] (7) 12: Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. [7G2] [MA2013] (7) 13: Describe the twodimensional figures that result from slicing threedimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. [7G3] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 38: Identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of threedimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects. [GGMD4]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Isometric Drawing Tool
Description: Create dynamic drawings on isometric dot paper with this interactive tool. Draw 2D and 3D figures using edges, faces, or cubes that you can shift, rotate, color, or decompose. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
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Title: Square Graphs
Description:
This student interactive, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to view six different graphs. Each graph plots one characteristic of the square along the horizontal axis and another along the vertical axis. Students then determine which two characteristics are used to make each graph.
Standard(s): [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] [MA2013] GEO (912) 14: Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor. [GSRT1]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Square Graphs
Description: This student interactive, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to view six different graphs. Each graph plots one characteristic of the square along the horizontal axis and another along the vertical axis. Students then determine which two characteristics are used to make each graph. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Identifying Unknown Transformations
Description:
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 7: Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. [GCO7] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Identifying Unknown Transformations
Description: Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
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Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Composing Reflections
Description:
This is part three of a fourpart eexample from Illuminations that features interactive figures that allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. In this part, Composing Reflections, users can examine the result of reflecting a shape successively through two different lines. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM). Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath Investigations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Composing Reflections
Description: This is part three of a fourpart eexample from Illuminations that features interactive figures that allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. In this part, Composing Reflections, users can examine the result of reflecting a shape successively through two different lines. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM). Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath Investigations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
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Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Composing Transformations
Description:
This is part four of a fourpart eexample from Illuminations that features interactive figures that allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. In this part, Composing Transformations, the users are challenged to compose equivalent transformations in two different ways. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM). Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath Investigations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (8) 16: Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: [8G1] [MA2013] (8) 17: Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. [8G2] [MA2013] (8) 18: Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. [8G3] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 2: Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 3: Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 4: Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] [MA2013] GEO (912) 5: Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 6: Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] [MA2013] GEO (912) 7: Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. [GCO7] [MA2013] GEO (912) 12: Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Understanding Congruence, Similarity, and Symmetry Using Transformations and Interactive Figures: Composing Transformations
Description: This is part four of a fourpart eexample from Illuminations that features interactive figures that allow a user to manipulate a shape and observe its behavior under a particular transformation or composition of transformations. In this part, Composing Transformations, the users are challenged to compose equivalent transformations in two different ways. eMath Investigations are selected eexamples from the electronic version of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (PSSM). Given their interactive nature and focused discussion tied to the PSSM document, the eexamples are natural companions to the iMath Investigations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8

