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Title: Marathon Math
Description:
This unit on sequences and series is intended to help students make the connection from math to real life situations. Developing a marathon training program for a beginner runner is one simple way that students may use patterns in real life. The total mileage per week usually creates a pattern over time. Mathematical operations on patterns, sequences, and series enable students to do the calculations necessary for exploring the pattern. Students also explore nutrition information needed for a training program as proper nutrition is an important part of sports training.
Standard(s): [ELA2013] (9) 28: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.910.9] [ELA2013] (9) 27: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. [W.910.8] [ELA2013] (9) 26: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selfgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. [W.910.7] [TC2] CA2 (912) 11: Critique digital content for validity, accuracy, bias, currency, and relevance. [ELA] (9) 14: Use the research process to locate, select, retrieve, evaluate, and organize information to support a thesis on a nonliterary topic. [MA2013] DM1 (912) 3: Use the recursive process and difference equations to create fractals, population growth models, sequences, series, and compound interest models. (Alabama) [MA2013] DM1 (912) 2: Determine characteristics of sequences, including the Fibonacci sequence, the triangular numbers, and pentagonal numbers. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3]
Subject: English Language Arts (9), or English Language Arts (9), or Mathematics (9  12), or Technology Education (9  12)
Title: Marathon Math
Description: This unit on sequences and series is intended to help students make the connection from math to real life situations. Developing a marathon training program for a beginner runner is one simple way that students may use patterns in real life. The total mileage per week usually creates a pattern over time. Mathematical operations on patterns, sequences, and series enable students to do the calculations necessary for exploring the pattern. Students also explore nutrition information needed for a training program as proper nutrition is an important part of sports training.
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Title: Counting Embedded Figures
Description:
In this Illuminations lesson, students look for patterns in an embeddedsquare problem. After looking at the patterns, students form generalizations for the pattern. This activity sharpens students algebraic thinking and visualization skills.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (6) 17: Use variables to represent numbers, and write expressions when solving a realworld or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. [6EE6] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 12: Create equations and inequalities in one variable, and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. [ACED1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 13: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. [ACED2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 34: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 21: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. [ACED2] [MA2013] ALT (912) 21: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. [ACED2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Counting Embedded Figures
Description: In this Illuminations lesson, students look for patterns in an embeddedsquare problem. After looking at the patterns, students form generalizations for the pattern. This activity sharpens students algebraic thinking and visualization skills. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8
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Title: To Fret or Not to Fret
Description:
In this unit of two lessons, from Illuminations, students explore geometric sequences and exponential functions by considering the placement of frets on stringed instruments. They study the placement of frets on a fretted instrument then use their discoveries to place frets on a fretless instrument.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: To Fret or Not to Fret
Description: In this unit of two lessons, from Illuminations, students explore geometric sequences and exponential functions by considering the placement of frets on stringed instruments. They study the placement of frets on a fretted instrument then use their discoveries to place frets on a fretless instrument. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Smokey Bear Takes Algebra
Description:
In this lesson, from Illuminations, students learn about the many factors that play a role in creating a forestfire danger rating index. They work with the Angstrom and Nesterov Indexes, explain the relationship between relative humidity and fire danger, and use graphing calculators to model the relationship between the slope of the land versus the rate of fire spread.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 34: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 46: Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. [SID7] [MA2013] PRE (912) 17: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.* [FIF6] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics,Science Title: Smokey Bear Takes Algebra
Description: In this lesson, from Illuminations, students learn about the many factors that play a role in creating a forestfire danger rating index. They work with the Angstrom and Nesterov Indexes, explain the relationship between relative humidity and fire danger, and use graphing calculators to model the relationship between the slope of the land versus the rate of fire spread. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Exploring Measurement, Sequences, and Curves with Stringed Instruments
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments. They discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Exploring Measurement, Sequences, and Curves with Stringed Instruments
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments. They discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: To Fret or...
Description:
This reproducible activity, from an Illuminations lesson, features questions dealing with measuring distances on fretted stringed instruments.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: To Fret or...
Description: This reproducible activity, from an Illuminations lesson, features questions dealing with measuring distances on fretted stringed instruments. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Vigenere Grid
Description:
This reproducible transparency, from an Illuminations lesson, depicts a Vigenere Grid, which is used for encoding a message using a polyalphabetic cipher.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 46: (+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems. [SCP9] [MA2013] DM1 (912) 3: Use the recursive process and difference equations to create fractals, population growth models, sequences, series, and compound interest models. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Vigenere Grid
Description: This reproducible transparency, from an Illuminations lesson, depicts a Vigenere Grid, which is used for encoding a message using a polyalphabetic cipher. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Not to Fret
Description:
This reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents a line drawing of a guitar's neck showing the location of the nut and the 12th fret. In the lesson, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments and discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Not to Fret
Description: This reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents a line drawing of a guitar's neck showing the location of the nut and the 12th fret. In the lesson, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments and discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: To Fret or Not to Fret
Description:
This reproducible worksheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents a series of questions related to fretted instruments and geometric sequences. In the lesson, students compare geometric sequences with exponential functions.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: To Fret or Not to Fret
Description: This reproducible worksheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents a series of questions related to fretted instruments and geometric sequences. In the lesson, students compare geometric sequences with exponential functions. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Fretting
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students use their discoveries from the first lesson to place frets on a fretless instrument. They then compare geometric sequences with exponential functions.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Fretting
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students use their discoveries from the first lesson to place frets on a fretless instrument. They then compare geometric sequences with exponential functions. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Seeing Music, Hearing Waves
Description:
Using this reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, students calculate the frequencies of two octaves of a chromatic musical scale in standard pitch. They then experiment with different combinations of notes and related sine waves to observe why some combinations of musical notes sound harmonious and others have a dissonance.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Seeing Music, Hearing Waves
Description: Using this reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, students calculate the frequencies of two octaves of a chromatic musical scale in standard pitch. They then experiment with different combinations of notes and related sine waves to observe why some combinations of musical notes sound harmonious and others have a dissonance. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Vigenere Cipher
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students learn about the polyalphabetic Vigenere cipher. They encode and decode text using inverse operations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 46: (+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems. [SCP9] [MA2013] DM1 (912) 3: Use the recursive process and difference equations to create fractals, population growth models, sequences, series, and compound interest models. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Vigenere Cipher
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students learn about the polyalphabetic Vigenere cipher. They encode and decode text using inverse operations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Seeing Music, Hearing Waves: Selected Answers and Solutions
Description:
This reproducible teacher sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, provides selected solutions to an activity in which students calculate the frequencies of two octaves of a chromatic musical scale in standard pitch. Students then experiment with different combinations of notes and related sine waves to observe why some combinations of musical notes sound harmonious and others have a dissonance.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Seeing Music, Hearing Waves: Selected Answers and Solutions
Description: This reproducible teacher sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, provides selected solutions to an activity in which students calculate the frequencies of two octaves of a chromatic musical scale in standard pitch. Students then experiment with different combinations of notes and related sine waves to observe why some combinations of musical notes sound harmonious and others have a dissonance. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Seeing Music
Description:
In this Illuminations lesson, students calculate terms of a geometric sequence to determine frequencies of the chromatic scale. They then compare sine waves to see and hear the trigonometry behind harmonious and dissonant note combinations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 2: Analyze mathematical relationships in music to interpret frequencies of musical notes and to compare mathematical structures of various musical instruments. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Seeing Music
Description: In this Illuminations lesson, students calculate terms of a geometric sequence to determine frequencies of the chromatic scale. They then compare sine waves to see and hear the trigonometry behind harmonious and dissonant note combinations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Hearing Music, Seeing Waves
Description:
This reproducible preactivity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents summary questions about the mathematics of music, specifically focused on sine waves and the geometric sequences of notes that are an octave apart.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] ALT (912) 38: Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle. [FTF2] [MA2013] ALT (912) 40: Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.* [FTF5] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Arts,Mathematics Title: Hearing Music, Seeing Waves
Description: This reproducible preactivity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, presents summary questions about the mathematics of music, specifically focused on sine waves and the geometric sequences of notes that are an octave apart. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Numerical Analysis
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students use iteration, recursion, and algebra to model and analyze a changing fish population. They use an interactive spreadsheet application to investigate their models.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 22: Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). [AREI10] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 34: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] ALC (912) 12: Create a model of a set of data by estimating the equation of a curve of best fit from tables of values or scatter plots. (Alabama) [MA2013] DM1 (912) 3: Use the recursive process and difference equations to create fractals, population growth models, sequences, series, and compound interest models. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics,Science Title: Numerical Analysis
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students use iteration, recursion, and algebra to model and analyze a changing fish population. They use an interactive spreadsheet application to investigate their models. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Recursive and Exponential Rules
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students determine recursive and exponential rules for various sequences.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 5: Identify beginnings of algebraic symbolism and structure through the works of European mathematicians. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Recursive and Exponential Rules
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students determine recursive and exponential rules for various sequences. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12
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Title: Make a Conjecture
Description:
In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students explore rates of change and accumulation in context. They are asked to think about the mathematics involved in determining the amount of blood being pumped by a heart.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 4: Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. [NQ1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 5: Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. [NQ2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 6: Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. [NQ3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 12: Create equations and inequalities in one variable, and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. [ACED1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 13: Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. [ACED2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 14: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. [ACED3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 28: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.* [FIF4] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 29: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.* [FIF5] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 30: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.* [FIF6] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 31: Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 32: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. [FIF8] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 34: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 37: Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions. [FLE1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 39: Observe, using graphs and tables, that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. [FLE3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 40: Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. [FLE5] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 41: Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). [SID1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 42: Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. [SID2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 45: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. [SID6] [MA2013] ALC (912) 3: Use formulas or equations of functions to calculate outcomes of exponential growth or decay. (Alabama) [MA2013] ALC (912) 5: Determine approximate rates of change of nonlinear relationships from graphical and numerical data. (Alabama) [MA2013] ALC (912) 12: Create a model of a set of data by estimating the equation of a curve of best fit from tables of values or scatter plots. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL2 (912) 12: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.* [ASSE1] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 20: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. [ACED1] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 22: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. [ACED3] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 29: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.* [FIF5] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 30: Graph functions expressed symbolically, and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 37: (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [SMD6] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 38: (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). [SMD7] [MA2013] ALT (912) 12: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.* [ASSE1] [MA2013] ALT (912) 20: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. [ACED1] [MA2013] ALT (912) 22: Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. [ACED3] [MA2013] PRE (912) 16: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. (Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. Determine odd, even, neither.)* [FIF4] (Alabama) [MA2013] ALT (912) 29: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.* [FIF5] [MA2013] PRE (912) 17: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.* [FIF6] [MA2013] ALT (912) 30: Graph functions expressed symbolically, and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] ALT (912) 33: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] ALT (912) 37: Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. [SID4] [MA2013] PRE (912) 44: Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population. [SIC1] [MA2013] PRE (912) 45: Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process, e.g., using simulation. [SIC2] [MA2013] PRE (912) 46: Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each. [SIC3] [MA2013] PRE (912) 49: Evaluate reports based on data. [SIC6] [MA2013] ALT (912) 41: (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [SMD6] [MA2013] ALT (912) 42: (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). [SMD7] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Health,Mathematics Title: Make a Conjecture
Description: In this lesson, one of a multipart unit from Illuminations, students explore rates of change and accumulation in context. They are asked to think about the mathematics involved in determining the amount of blood being pumped by a heart. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Exact Ratio
Description:
This reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, features a series of questions pertaining to exact ratios and geometric sequences. In the lesson, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments and discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence.
Standard(s): [MA2013] AL1 (912) 2: Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. [NRN2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 28: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.* [FIF4] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 31: Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 32: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. [FIF8] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 33: Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). [FIF9] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 34: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 37: Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions. [FLE1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 38: Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). [FLE2] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 39: Observe, using graphs and tables, that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. [FLE3] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 45: Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. [SID6] [MA2013] ALC (912) 3: Use formulas or equations of functions to calculate outcomes of exponential growth or decay. (Alabama) [MA2013] ALC (912) 12: Create a model of a set of data by estimating the equation of a curve of best fit from tables of values or scatter plots. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL2 (912) 12: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.* [ASSE1] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 29: Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.* [FIF5] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 30: Graph functions expressed symbolically, and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] AL2 (912) 34: Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
[FBF3] [MA2013] PRE (912) 16: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. (Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. Determine odd, even, neither.)* [FIF4] (Alabama) [MA2013] ALT (912) 30: Graph functions expressed symbolically, and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.* [FIF7] [MA2013] ALT (912) 33: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.* [FBF1] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Exact Ratio
Description: This reproducible activity sheet, from an Illuminations lesson, features a series of questions pertaining to exact ratios and geometric sequences. In the lesson, students measure lengths on stringed musical instruments and discuss how the placement of frets on a fretted instrument is determined by a geometric sequence. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 9,10,11,12
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Title: Fractal Tool
Description:
This student interactive, from Illuminations, illustrates iteration graphically. Students can view preset iterations of various shapes and/or choose to create their own iterations.
Standard(s): [MA2013] (3) 24: Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. [3G1] [MA2013] (7) 11: Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale. [7G1] [MA2013] (7) 12: Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. [7G2] [MA2013] (7) 16: Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, volume, and surface area of two and threedimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. [7G6] [MA2013] (8) 19: Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar twodimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. [8G4] [MA2013] AL1 (912) 27: Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. [FIF3] [MA2013] GEO (912) 15: Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. [GSRT2] [MA2013] GEO (912) 18: Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. [GSRT5] [MA2013] GEO (912) 39: Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).* [GMG1] [MA2013] MI1 (912) 9: Analyze works of visual art and architecture for mathematical relationships. (Alabama) [MA2013] AL1 (912) 35: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.* [FBF2]
Subject: Mathematics Title: Fractal Tool
Description: This student interactive, from Illuminations, illustrates iteration graphically. Students can view preset iterations of various shapes and/or choose to create their own iterations. Thinkfinity Partner: Illuminations Grade Span: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

