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Lesson Plans (31) A detailed description of the instruction for teaching one or more concepts or skills. Podcasts (38) A program (audio or video) made available in digital format for playback or download over the Internet. Informational Materials (47) Textual information containing useful facts or information.
Interactives/Games (16) A learning object that requires a user's involvement. Learning Activities (3) Any activity that would enhance a lesson or unit in order to help the learner master an objective 
and/or acquire a skill.  Examples include, but are not limited to, online tutorials, experiments, 
demonstrations, and hands-on activities.


ALEX Lesson Plans


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6)
Title: Sweet Revenge
Description: Students will evaluate the information from chapters 1-3 of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, particularly how the Logan children are treated by the white students and the bus driver. They will then decide if they agree or disagree with the decision made by the Logan children to seek revenge. Students will defend and provide support for their opinion. This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6)
Title: Having Your Say: Opinion Writing with Text Based Support
Description: A reading and writing connection lesson designed to help elementary students learn about writing opinions based on textual evidence. This lesson is designed to link social studies with the literacy block. This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.  


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6)
Title: Life Then and Now
Description: Students have read the novel, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, and will compare and contrast the relationship of the blacks and whites in 1930s to the relationship of blacks and whites in 2013. This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Is Separate Equal?  The Role of School Integration in the Civil Rights Movement
Description: Students will read and do research in order to build their background knowledge regarding school integration.  Students will use various websites and view online videos to develop an understanding of segregation and integration of schools during the Civil Rights Movement.  Students will then write and publish a picture book about school integration.


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Subject: Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: The President's Desk
Description: History comes to life for students as they explore a virtual tour of President John F. Kennedy's Oval Office. This interactive online module features several multi-media presentations of historic aspects of Kennedy's life and administration. Students actively engage in learning about various topics related to Kennedy's presidency, United States history, and what it means to be president of our country. In conclusion, students will use an online digital photo editing tool to create their own Kennedy photo album.


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Subject: Social Studies (K - 11)
Title: African American Honorees in Alabama History
Description: Students will create a PowerPoint slide show presentation and brochure on a famous African American icon from the Alabama Calendar. Students may select famous African Americans from Alabama such as Rosa Parks, Vonetta Flowers, Dr. Mae Jemison, Joe Louis, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Rosa Parks, Hank Aaron, Dr. Regina Benjamin, Dr. Ethel Hall, Judge Oscar Adams, Billie Jean Young, George Washington Carver, Booker T. Washington, or Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. This lesson was created to accompany the Alabama African American History Calendar Project.


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Subject: Information Literacy (K - 12), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: The Laws, They Are A-Changin'
Description: This unit will cover the key people, places, and events of the Civil Rights Movement. The students will create a Powerpoint presentation, a brochure, and a website so that they can use and extend their technology skills. They will also use and extend their research skills in this process.


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Subject: Character Education (K - 12), or English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: What Makes a Good or Bad Leader?
Description: After deciding on the criteria of a good leader, students research either a good or bad leader, create a class presentation of that person which focuses on his/her impact on history. Students then write and perform a three to four minute skit to illustrate the leader's impact on American life.


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Subject: English Language Arts (7), or Social Studies (6 - 7), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Personal Heritage Project
Description: This research project requires students to connect with the past by researching both primary and secondary sources for family history. Their findings are presented in a keepsake portfolio and in a multimedia presentation comparing the historical time period of an ancestor to their own.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6 - 8), or Information Literacy (K - 12), or Social Studies (6 - 7), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Whose Voice Guides Your Choice?
Description: In this one-two week unit, students explore the role media has in influencing public opinion. Students analyze advertising in print, video, and online formats. An optional visit to the Museum of Television and Radio via distance learning videoconferencing helps students examine the extent to which they are influenced by propaganda.


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Subject: English Language Arts (4 - 5), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (3 - 5)
Title: Who Will Be President?
Description: This lesson will allow students to experience the election process of an American President through a mock election. Students will learn the steps that must be followed in order to have an election. This is a great way to get students motivated to be involved in the election process.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Information Literacy (K - 12), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Researching with the Alabama Virtual Library
Description: After an introduction to the Alabama Virtual Library, students use the available resources to research and present information about a United States president.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Fighting for Gender and Racial Equality
Description: In this lesson students will examine the lives of key leaders and events in the fight for gender and racial equality at the turn of the 20th century. Through this inquiry study students will choose one of these leaders or events to research. The research content will be the basis of a written summary on an individual or event. The students will also create a visual aide or role-play relating the life and times of the individual or event.


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Subject: Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Description: This lesson introduces students to Rosa Parks and the beginning of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. After considering the impact of Ms. Parks' heroism, students will explore its relevance to the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. Students will learn new vocabulary and will answer a questionnaire that will be published on the web. Students will then create a tribute to Rosa Parks' heroism that will be submitted to a classroom book.


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Subject: English Language Arts (6), or Social Studies (6), or Technology Education (6 - 8)
Title: Our African American Heroes
Description: Students will create a short digital slideshow presentation and brochure on a famous black American.


Thinkfinity Lesson Plans


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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Picturing Freedom: Selma-to-Montgomery March, 1963     
Description: In this lesson, students learn about the Selma-to-Montgomery voting rights march. After analyzing photojournalist James Karales's iconic photograph of the march, reading background material on it, and considering what the marchers might have thought and felt, students write and illustrate a postcard describing this civil rights event from a marcher's viewpoint.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: We Are The Freedom Riders     
Description: Students will learn about the courageous efforts of the Freedom Riders while embracing the bold theme, '' We Will Overcome!'' as a theme surrounding the civil rights movement.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Having Fun: Leisure and Entertainment at the Turn of the Twentieth Century     
Description: In this EDSITEment lesson, students learn about new forms of entertainment that became popular at the turn of the century. They explore the ways Americans at different economic levels spent their leisure time as well as innovations in technology that contributed to the leisure industry in America. Finally, students examine how the mass media promoted the concept of leisure and entertainment to all Americans.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Power of Nonviolence     
Description: This lesson, from EDSITEment introduces students to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s philosophy of nonviolence and the teachings of Mohandas K. Gandhi that influenced King's views. After considering the political impact of this philosophy, students explore its relevance to personal life.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8



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Subject: Arts,Foreign Languages,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: EDSITEment Websites     
Description: This page from EDSITEment provides links to top humanities sites on the Web. All sites linked to EDSITEment have been reviewed for content, design, and likely impact in the classroom. They cover a wide range of humanities subjects, from American history to literature, world history and culture, language, art, and archaeology, and have been judged by humanities specialists to be of high intellectual quality. EDSITEment is the product of a partnership forged among the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Council of the Great City Schools, WorldCom Foundation and the National Trust for the Humanities and is a member of the MarcoPolo consortium.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: April Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering April holidays and special events. April is National Poetry Month and the calendar links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to this theme.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: Humanities Articles     
Description: This EDSITEment resource spotlights their selection of the best Humanities Web sites and provides links to the selected sites along with information about how sites are selected.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: January - 2010 - I Have a Dream: Celebrating the Vision of Martin Luther King, Jr     
Description: On the third Monday of January, Americans celebrate the life and achievement of one of our most respected citizens Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King was a leading force in the drive for civil rights in the United States, and he showed through words and actions that non-violent, persistent activism can achieve tremendous results by appealing to the moral conscience of Americans.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: September Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering September holidays and special events. September's theme is '' The U.S. Constitution,'' and this calendar includes links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to this theme.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies,Arts
Title: EDSITEment     
Description: The National Endowment for the Humanities' EDSITEment Web site offers the best of the humanities on the Web. The site includes subject-based access to top humanities sites, EDSITEment lesson plans and at-home activities, and additional learning activities.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: JFK Analysis     
Description: In this Science Update, from Science NetLinks, you'll hear atmospheric chemist Ken Rahn describe how he and a ballistics specialist have re-analyzed the data from two major forensic studies of the John F. Kennedy assassination. The analysis showed that despite apparent chemical differences, the tiny bullet fragments recovered from the president's limousine matched the larger bullets found in his body, making the chance that there were two shooters as little as a million to one. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLinks lessons and other related resources.
Thinkfinity Partner: Science NetLinks
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: December Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering December holidays and special events. The calendar covers topics such as the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and the Boston Tea Party, and includes links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to these and other topics.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: Tolerance: Gender Issues     
Description: In this lesson, students research how professions such as nursing, clerking, and teaching have changed gender dominance over the past 150 years in the United States.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: 6



ALEX Podcasts


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Who Wants to Go to Birmingham--1963?
Overview:
Intended to be used as an introductory activity with the novel The Watsons Go to Birmingham--1963, by Christopher Paul Curtis, this five-and-a-half minute video provides a brief overview of the climate and significant events that occurred in Birmingham and across the South in 1963.  The question in the title is to provoke students to think about why the Watson family would choose to make the trek from the relatively calm Flint, Michigan, to the turmoil-filled Birmingham, Alabama.  Other than the allusion in the title and mention in the end credits, this podcast does not make any specific reference's to Curtis' book, and can therefore be used as a stand-alone tool in the study of the Civil Rights Movement.  


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Alabama State University Student Sit-in Protests of 1960
Overview:
ArchiTreats: Food for Thought offers informative talks on Alabama history at the Alabama Department of Archives and History. Join us as Joe L . Reed presents Alabama State University Student Sit-In Protests of 1960. On February 1, 1960 four black students at North Carolina A&T University went to the F.W. Woolworth store to order food and decided to ‘sit down’ and eat rather that stand up. This decision to ‘sit down’ sparked a massive new movement in support of civil and economic rights . For the first time, students made an independent decision, on their own, to actively oppose segregation. Soon the movement spread to Montgomery where Alabama State U niversity became the focal point of the entire ‘sit‐in’ movement in Alabama. Joe L. Reed was born in Conecuh County where he attended public schools. He served a tour of duty in the U.S. Army in Korea. A graduate of Alabama State University (ASU), Reed was president of the junior class and president of the student body. While a student there, he was an organizer of the ‘sit‐in’ movement in Montgomery, and a founding member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. He received a master’s degree in Political Science from Case Western Reserve University and an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from ASU. Reed has served numerous positions in the Democratic Party and as a Montgomery City Councilman for 24 years and is widely known as a champion for voting rights and equal representation. Currently, Reed serves as Associate Executive Secretary of the A labama Education Association. This ArchiTreats presentation is made possible by the Friends of the Alabama Archives. The public is invited to bring a sack lunch and enjoy a bit of Alabama history. Coffee and tea will be provided by the Friends of the Alabama Archives. For more info rmation, call (334) 353‐4726. This program is part of the statewide Becoming Alabama initiative to commemorate three landmark events in the development of Alabama: the Creek War of 1813‐1814, the Civil War and Emancipation, and t he Civil Rights Movement.


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Becoming Billie Holiday
Overview:
Carole Boston Weatherford was interviewed about her book, Becoming Billie Holiday. The interview was prepared, filmed, edited, and rendered by students from Brewbaker Tech High School and took place at the Alabama Book Festival in Montgomery, Alabama on April 18, 2009.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Emma Young
Overview:
Emma Young was born in Camden, Wilcox County, Alabama in 1902.  She moved to Birmingham as a young married woman.  While in Birmingham, she worked as a housewife in her own home, and as a domestic in the homes of White families.  In addition, she worked as a cook and maid at downtown hotels.   When Martin Luther King, Jr. came to Birmingham to assist the local Civil Rights Movement, Young was active in the movement with her children and grandchildren.  She attended mass meetings and demonstrations, and her son, grandson, and granddaughter were jailed. Mrs. Young passed away at the age of 102.    Listen to Emma Young relay the story of an encounter between Birmingham police commissioner, Bull Conner, and a group of rabbis who had traveled to Birmingham in 1963 to observe the movement and support the efforts of local Blacks working to end segregation's grip on the city. 


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Calvin Woods
Overview:
A second-generation pastor, Reverend Calvin Woods was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1933 and educated at Parker High School and Birmingham Baptist Bible College.  He also graduated from Miles College and engaged in studies at other institutions.   When the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights was founded in 1956, Woods was already known for his beliefs.  He spoke out from the pulpit on the unconstitutional ity of segregation laws.   His outspokenness eventually led to an incident that marked his early involvement in the organized movement for change in Birmingham and the South.   Listen to Reverend Woods discuss that incident and his general role in the Birmingham Movement.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Lamar Weaver
Overview:
Born in Cassville, Georgia in 1928, Lamar Weaver moved with his mother, a nurse, to Birmingham when he was in elementary school.  The family lived in a downtown neighborhood where he played with Italian, Jewish and Black children, often getting into trouble.  By the time he graduated from high school, Weaver had become a Christian.  He decided to enter the ministry and the Civil Rights Movement, which was getting underway in Birmingham.  In addition, Weaver ran for public office against Bull Conner in the City of Birmingham.  In order to pay the bills while he was in Bible College, he worked as an ambulance driver and metallurgist for Tennessee Coal & Iron (TCI).  Weaver's employment came to an end in early March of 1957 after he accompanied Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and his wife, Ruby Shuttlesworth, to the Union Terminal Station in downtown Birmingham where the three shared a bench in the "Whites only" waiting room.   Listen to Lamar Weaver describe the scene at Terminal Station and the reaction of an angry White mob to his involvement in the Shuttlesworth's attempt to desegregate that public facility.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Rosa Washington
Overview:
Rosa Powell Washington was born in Davenport, Montgomery County, Alabama in 1912.  When she was eight years old, her father decided to leave the farm to find work in the city.  Married at 22 years old, Washington moved to Pittsburgh with her husband, who died five years later of tuberculosis.  By the time she was 27 years old, her mother and father had also died and she was left to raise a deceased brother's five children.  Eventually, she was hired to work at the Greyhound Bus Station in downtown Birmingham.  She retired as an Information Clerk for Greyhound after 37 years and 4 months.     Listen to Rosa Washington remember that fateful Sunday when the Freedom Riders arrived at the Birmingham Greyhound Bus Station in 1961.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Virginia Volker
Overview:
Virginia Sparks Volker was born in Jasper, Alabama in 1940.  An instructor of Biology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) since 1967, Volker has degrees from the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa and Harvard University.  Actively involved in the Unitarian church and in many community organizations, Volker also directs an annual summer intensive course on the Civil Rights Movement.   As a college student in the early 1960s, Volker participated in inter-racial discussion and social groups with students from Stillman College.  Because such activities were illegal, Volker and her friends were strongly encouraged by university administrators to cease participation.  However, even after she enrolled in graduate school at UAB, she continued to cross boundaries and participate in groups such as the Alabama Council on Human Relations and Friendship in Action.    Listen to Virginia Volker explain how she and other White students came to socialize with Black college students in Tuscaloosa, Alabama in 1960 and '61.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with David Vann
Overview:
David Vann was born in Roanoke, the largest town in Randolph County, Alabama.  He served in World War II, received a law degree, and, later, clerked for Alabama native and U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Hugo Black.  Vann served as Justice Black's clerk when the court handed down its landmark 1954 decision in the case of Brown v Board of Education.  Shortly after that decision, Vann arrived in Birmingham to practice law with a downtown firm known for its relatively progressive views and representation of labor.    One of Vann's chief accomplishments was successfully campaigning for a public referendum in 1962 that changed Birmingham's form of municipal government from the city commission system to a mayoral/council system.  Later, from 1975 to 1979, Vann himself served as Mayor of the City of Birmingham. Vann passed away in 1999.   Listen to former Mayor Vann discuss critical events that he believed led to the gradual willingness of Birmingham's White leadership to negotiate with local Black leaders and bring about an end to segregation in Birmingham.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Fred L. Shuttlesworth
Overview:
Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth was born near Birmingham in 1922.  After college at Alabama State University and studies at Selma University, Shuttlesworth entered the ministry in Selma, Alabama.  Shortly after he was called into the ministry, he accepted a pastorate at Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham where he remained until 1961.    In 1956, the state of Alabama outlawed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from operating in the state.  In response to that action, Shuttlesworth and others organized to form the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR).  Led by Shuttlesworth, the ACMHR filed lawsuits, coordinated demonstrations and protests, and otherwise challenged the segregation laws of Birmingham.  In retaliation, his home was bombed repeatedly.  Though he accepted a pastorate at a church in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1961, Shuttlesworth retained his leadership role in the Birmingham movement and the ACMHR, inviting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and members of the SCLC to come to Birmingham in 1963.   Listen to Fred Shuttlesworth describe the intensity of a mass meeting held on June 5, 1956—the date on which the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights was formally organized.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with James Montgomery
Overview:
Dr. James T. Montgomery was born in the South Alabama town of Atmore in 1926.  When he was 10 years old, his family moved to Birmingham where they made a living in the grocery business.    After graduating from Rosedale High School, Dr. Montgomery went to Atlanta to study at Morehouse College, from which he graduated in 1947.  In order to save money for medical school, Montgomery and his wife lived with his grandparents in Birmingham while he taught Biology and Chemistry for two years at Parker High School.   In 1950, the Montgomerys moved to Washington, D.C. where James attended Howard University Medical School.  Following residencies in St. Louis and Boston, Dr. Montgomery and his wife returned to Birmingham, where he set out to practice cardiology.    Listen as James Montgomery discusses his return to Birmingham in the late-1950s and his reception by local White physicians, many of whom privately encouraged his practice, while publicly refusing to support his induction into medical societies or his ability to see patients in all the city's hospitals


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Merrian McClendon
Overview:
Born in Birmingham in 1948, Merriam McLendon skipped a grade in elementary school.   During movement events in Birmingham in 1963, she was a sophomore at Wenonah High School.  For months prior to the downtown demonstrations, she and her mother had attended and been inspired by mass meetings.  At the height of the Birmingham movement, she spent several days in the county jail.   When she was sixteen years old, McClendon enrolled in Miles College.   After graduation, she moved to Chicago and continued to be politically active while raising a family and experiencing success in the corporate world.   In 1986, after living in and traveling to many places, McLendon returned to Birmingham.   Listen to Merriam McLendon describe how she came to be involved in the Civil Rights Movement.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Carrie Hamilton Lock
Overview:
Carrie Hamilton Lock, the daughter of Florida and William Hamilton, was born in Birmingham in 1949.  Both of her parents were actively involved in many aspects of the Movement, as were most of her neighbors in the Rising community.   During the 1963 demonstrations in downtown Birmingham, Lock was a student at Parker High School.  She marched and attended mass meetings with friends and family.   One year later, at the beginning of the 1964-'65 school year, Lock walked into Birmingham's West End High School amid jeers from a mob of White protestors who did not wish to see public schools integrated.  She was the only Black student to attend the school that year.    Listen to Lock recall that first day of school at West End High.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Colonel Stone Johnson
Overview:
Born in the Black Belt town of Hayneville in Lowndes County, Alabama, Colonel Stone Johnson moved to Birmingham at the age of four with his parents, a homemaker and a college-educated cement finisher.   After graduating from Parker High School, Johnson became a truck driver for Hormel Packing Company.  It was then, in the 1940s, that Johnson became actively involved in union organizing.  This period also marked the beginning of his civil rights movement activism, for Johnson saw much discrepancy between the treatment and pay of Black workers and that of Whites.    Listen to Colonel Johnson explain his reasons for getting involved in the Civil Rights Movement.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Lola Hendricks
Overview:
Lola Hendricks was born in Birmingham in 1932 and has lived in the city all her life.   After high school, Hendricks attended Booker T. Washington Business College.  Later, as a clerk typist and insurance writer at a local firm, she began attending mass meetings at local churches—events that educated and inspired Blacks in Birmingham to work for change.    Hendricks was an officer with Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth in the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights in 1956.  She went on to work for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and to assist Rev. Wyatt T. Walker, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and others as they organized "Project C" in Birmingham in 1963.  After long stints with both the Social Security Administration and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Hendricks retired from the federal government in the early 1990s.     Listen to Lola Hendricks describe early mass meetings in Birmingham.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Florida Hamilton
Overview:
Florida Hamilton was born in Bessemer, Alabama in 1925 and reared in Birmingham.  After graduating from Parker High School, she married a minister.  Hamilton cared for her family while working for local physicians and with the Children's Aid Society.  Encouraged by her best friend from church, Hamilton began attending mass meetings in the early 1960s.  She took her children along.  The entire Hamilton family was involved in meetings, marches, and demonstrations.      In Fall 1964, one year after two Black students had integrated and graduated from Birmingham's West End High School, Reverend and Mrs. Hamilton enrolled their daughter, Carrie, in the school.  Carrie was the only Black student in the school, for other Black families who had planned to send their children opted out before the first day of school.    Listen to Florida Hamilton remember the day that Carrie faced a crowd of angry Whites and proudly entered West End High School.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Nims Gay
Overview:
Nims Gay moved to Birmingham with his parents, a homemaker and a railroad worker, soon after he was born in Calhoun County, Alabama in 1923.  A member of the Parker High School Choir and, later, founder of a group called the Gay Harmoniers, Gay was a natural musician.  He was also the first Black radio announcer for Birmingham station WJLD.    When Fred Shuttlesworth and others formed the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) in 1956, Gay served as one of its founding choir directors.  Professional choir musicians eventually took over directorship of the ACMHR Choir, but Gay remained active in the Civil Rights Movement.  He retired from management at Blue Cross Blue Shield, the insurance company.   Listen to Nims Gay tell about driving to Anniston in 1961 to transport Black and White "Freedom Riders" to Birmingham where they stayed in the homes of movement activists after their bus was burned by a mob of angry Whites.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Elizabeth Fitts
Overview:
Dr. Elizabeth Hayes Fitts was born in Montgomery, Alabama in 1943, but grew up in Birmingham.  After graduation from Ullman High School, Fitts entered Miles College in Birmingham, where she became involved in the Civil Rights Movement.  In fact, she became so involved that she left school for a time to join the staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), helping to organize voter registration in Southeastern states.   Fitts returned to college at Tuskegee, where she remained actively involved in the movement.  Now a professor at Alabama State University in Montgomery, Dr. Fitts speaks publicly about her activism, particularly about being jailed as a college student in Birmingham in 1963.   Listen to Elizabeth Fitts explain how she and other Miles College students organized and carried out a local economic boycott known as the "Selective Buying Campaign" in Birmingham.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Hattie Felder
Overview:
Hattie M. Felder was born in Orrville in Dallas County, Alabama in 1928.  When she was 21 years old, Felder moved to Birmingham, where she could live with extended family while completing school and supporting a child.  She attended beauty school at night and worked in the kitchen at a nursing home during the day.  Even then, in the early 1950s, Felder was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which the State of Alabama shut down in 1956.  When former members and leaders of the NAACP formed the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, Felder joined it as well.    Many adults in the Black community did not openly participate in Movement activities because they feared loss of their or their spouse's jobs.  Felder, however, was self-employed as a beautician, so she did not hesitate to go to jail on Easter Sunday 1963. Listen to Hattie Felder tell what it was like to be involved in the NAACP in Alabama in the 1950s.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Hattie Felder
Overview:
Hattie M. Felder was born in Orrville in Dallas County, Alabama in 1928. When she was 21 years old, Felder moved to Birmingham, where she could live with extended family while completing school and supporting a child. She attended beauty school at night and worked in the kitchen at a nursing home during the day. Even then, in the early 1950s, Felder was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which the State of Alabama shut down in 1956. When former members and leaders of the NAACP formed the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, Felder joined it as well. Many adults in the Black community did not openly participate in Movement activities because they feared loss of their or their spouse's jobs. Felder, however, was self-employed as a beautician, so she did not hesitate to go to jail on Easter Sunday 1963. Listen to Hattie Felder tell what it was like to be involved in the NAACP in Alabama in the 1950s.  


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Frank Dukes
Overview:
Reverend Frank Dukes was born in the Birmingham suburb of Fairfield in 1930, where he also attended public schools. After military service in the Korean War and time spent working in automobile plants in Detroit, Dukes returned to Birmingham and enrolled in Miles College. As student government president at Miles, Dukes encouraged other students to get involved in the local movement for change in segregation laws and customs. Listen to Frank Dukes discuss the Selective Buying Campaign, a tactic championed and organized by local college students and administrators in Birmingham in the early 1960s.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Joe Dickson
Overview:
Joe Dickson was born in Montgomery, Alabama in 1933. When he was five years old, his widowed mother brought her five children to Birmingham to live with family in Fairfield. After high school and military service, Dickson returned home and enrolled in Miles College in 1955. Later he received a law degree from Howard University, served as an advisor on Minority Affairs to Alabama Governor Guy Hunt, and bought the Birmingham World newspaper. Dickson served as student government president at Miles, which put him in a position of leadership during Movement activities in Birmingham, including the Miles College student-led Selective Buying Campaign. Listen to Joe Dickson discuss the effectiveness of the Selective Buying Campaign in Birmingham in 1962.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Reuben Davis
Overview:
Born in Birmingham in 1923, Reuben Davis is another labor union member whose activism as a railroad employee led to his involvement in the larger civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. Davis served time in the Navy during World War II, but returned directly to Birmingham as soon as he was discharged. After a brief stint as an auto mechanic at a car dealership, Davis was offered a job teaching auto mechanics to high school students in Bessemer. Though he had not attended college nor ever been an instructor, Davis took to the work quickly and retired from teaching after 30 years. Listen to Reuben Davis relay an incident from his union days that motivated him to seek equal rights for Blacks and Whites throughout the rest of his life.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Carolyn Cunningham
Overview:
Carolyn Cunningham was born and reared in Birmingham. After high school graduation, she left for New Orleans and Chicago, eventually graduating from Southern University in Louisiana with degrees in Speech and English. Upon returning to Birmingham in 1961, Cunningham was offered a teaching position at Ullman High School. Shortly after joining the faculty, she became involved in the civil rights movement both directly, as a participant, and indirectly, as a role model to her students. Listen to Carolyn Cunningham talk about the pressures local educators faced as they decided whether or not to participate in movement activities.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Jerome "Buddy" Cooper
Overview:
Attorney Buddy Cooper was born in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama in 1913, but moved to Birmingham when he was six years old. Later, after graduation from Phillips High School, Cooper went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he attended Harvard College and Harvard Law School. Cooper's career as a labor lawyer in Birmingham was interrupted by service in the Navy during World War II. Upon his return, Cooper again practiced law, receiving the first judgment under the National Labor Relations Board for Black railroad firemen in 1951. Cooper passed away in 2003. Listen to Mr. Cooper talk about Alabama native and U.S. Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, whom he served as a clerk in Washington, D.C. in the late 1930s.


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BCRI Oral History- An Interview with Jesse Champion
Overview:
Jesse Champion was born in the Dolomite community of Birmingham in 1927. While attending Parker High School, he worked under Fess Whatley, the well-known musician and music instructor, from whom he learned to play the clarinet and drums. After high school, he served in the Navy before entering Morehouse College in Atlanta. A scholarship to Alabama A&M enabled him to complete his undergraduate education in 1950. As a high school teacher in Gadsden, Alabama in the 1950s, Champion spent summers attending graduate school at Notre Dame. In 1960, he and his family returned to Birmingham. While teaching at Council Elementary School in the Ensley area of Birmingham, Champion had a run-in with the Birmingham Police Department. The incident, which occurred during the April 1963 demonstrations by local high school students, cost him his position with the school system. Listen to Jesse Champion talk about his experience as a high school teacher at the height of the Birmingham demonstrations.  


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Oral History Interview with James Armstrong
Overview:
James Armstrong was born in Orrville, Dallas County, Alabama in 1923.  After military service in Europe from 1943 to 1946, he returned to Alabama and worked in Selma and in Mobile, where he married.  Since 1953, Armstrong has been self-employed as a barber in Birmingham.    Armstrong was a founding member of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR).  Beginning in 1957, the entire Armstrong family took a lead in Birmingham's efforts to end desegregation when Armstrong registered his children to attend school at Graymont Elementary, an all-White public school.  When the children were denied entry, Armstrong filed a lawsuit and a team of lawyers, including Arthur Shores and Constance Baker Motley, handled the case.  Six years later, Armstrong's youngest children entered and desegregated Graymont Elementary School. Listen to Mr. Armstrong as he describes the day in September 1963 when his two youngest sons finally enrolled at Graymont Elementary. 


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Jim Crow and Me
Overview:
Listen to this interview of Solomon S. Seay and Judge Delores Boyd, authors of Jim Crow and Me: Stories from My Life as a Civil Rights Lawyer conducted at the 2009 Alabama Book Festival by students of Brewbaker Technology Magnet High School.


Thinkfinity Podcasts


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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Freedom Riders     
Description: Join the courageous band of students and civil rights activists called Freedom Riders in 1961 as they challenged segregation in the American South. An NEH-funded website from American Experience with video clips of the participants, interactive time lines, and interactive maps. A series of lesson plans are included.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 7,8,9,10,11



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Subject: Language Arts, Social Studies
Title: Getting an Education     
Description: This video segment, adapted from NOVA , chronicles the education of leading chemist Percy Julian. Although Julian began his elementary school years in the DeepSouth under Jim Crow laws, he became one of the few African Americans of his time to earn a Ph.D.
Thinkfinity Partner: Teachers's Domain
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education Electronic Field Trips     
Description: In these electronic field trips produced by the National Museum of American History, viewers are given a 20 minute tour by the curators of the exhibition Separate Is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education, followed by a 30 minute videotaped question and answer session about the Brown v. Board of Education case and its legacy.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: First Person Account: Clarence Sasser     
Description: Vietnam veteran and Medal of Honor recipient, Clarence Sasser recounts his war experience. This video is part of the Price of Freedom learning resources package for use with the The Soldiers Experience lesson plan. It was produced to accompany the exhibition The Price of Freedom: Americans at War , by the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: First Person Account: Fred Castleberry     
Description: Fred Castleberry, an US infantryman in Vietnam, tells how a Huey saved his life after he was wounded in battle.This video is part of the Price of Freedom learning resources package for use with the The Soldiers Experience lesson plan. It was produced to accompany the exhibition The Price of Freedom: Americans at War .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: First Person Account: Hal Moore     
Description: Hal Moore, the commander of a cavalry regiment, summarizes the role of the Huey in Vietnam.This video is part of the Price of Freedom learning resources package for use with the The Soldiers Experience lesson plan. It was produced to accompany the exhibition The Price of Freedom: Americans at War , by the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Youth Town Hall with the Greensboro Civil Rights Pioneers: Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Woolworth Lunch Counter Student Sit-In (Lecture Video)     
Description: During this 98-minute archived webcast, hear three members of the Greensboro Four reflect on their experiences as nonviolent protesters during the civil rights movement. The three surviving members of the Greensboro Four, Jibreel Khazan (formerly Ezell Blair, Jr.), Franklin McCain, and Joseph McNeil participated in an oral history. Their bold action ignited student involvement in the Civil Rights Movement when they staged a sit-in at the Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina on February 1, 1960.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Join the Student Sit-Ins Classroom Videos     
Description: In this series of five short videos, students can watch a museum theater presentation. During the presentation, a fictional composite character from 1960 is conducting a training session for people interested in joining a student sit-in to protest racial segregation. The student speaks about the recent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, and coaches members of the audience in the philosophy and tactics of non-violent direct action.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Podcast: Jon Hendricks creates a new jazz style     
Description: This podcast from the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention & Innovation at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, presents Jon Hendricks's jazz innovation that earned him the nickname, the "Father of Vocalese.''
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: JFK Analysis     
Description: In this Science Update, from Science NetLinks, you'll hear atmospheric chemist Ken Rahn describe how he and a ballistics specialist have re-analyzed the data from two major forensic studies of the John F. Kennedy assassination. The analysis showed that despite apparent chemical differences, the tiny bullet fragments recovered from the president's limousine matched the larger bullets found in his body, making the chance that there were two shooters as little as a million to one. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLinks lessons and other related resources.
Thinkfinity Partner: Science NetLinks
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



Web Resources


Lesson Plans


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Civil Rights
http://global.wisc.e...
This teaching guide helps teachers guide students through the civil rights movement.

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iCivics: Civil Rights
http://www.icivics.o...
Four lessons use primary documents, readings, activities and more to introduce key concepts and events. There are also interactive games and simulations available.

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We Would Rather Walk: the Bus Boycott in Montgomery
http://www.archives....
This concise unit explores the conditions the led to the bus boycott in Montgomery and the catalytic effect it had on the Civil Rights Movement. This plan is prepared for 6th grade students, but can be easily adapted to lower grades.

Podcasts


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I Have A Dream
http://www.americanr...
The audio and text of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered August 28, 1963. *Free access, no account needed.

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Martin Luther King, Jr: Animated Video Biography
http://www.brainpop....
This animated BrainPOP video provides a clear, concise review of the life and works of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. There are also links to a related activity, quiz, and famous quotes. *This video is free and can be viewed with no account set-up.

Informational Materials


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iCivics: Civil Rights
http://www.icivics.o...
Four lessons use primary documents, readings, activities and more to introduce key concepts and events. There are also interactive games and simulations available.

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Alabama African American History Calendar Project
http://alafricanamer...
Events in history help complete the understanding of African American history. This website provides a month-by-month outline of historic dates relevant to Alabama African American history offers readers a perspective that compliments the biographical data on African American leaders. This timeline view helps complete the picture of the African American impact on Alabama and United States history. A free, downloadable calendar with historic events from African American history can also be found on this site.

Interactives/Games


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When In Time
http://whenintime.co...
WheninTime is a web application that enables users to create, view, explore and contribute to interactive digital timelines on the topic of their choice. (Website's description)

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iCivics: Civil Rights
http://www.icivics.o...
Four lessons use primary documents, readings, activities and more to introduce key concepts and events. There are also interactive games and simulations available.

Learning Activities


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When In Time
http://whenintime.co...
WheninTime is a web application that enables users to create, view, explore and contribute to interactive digital timelines on the topic of their choice. (Website's description)

Thinkfinity Informational Materials


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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Freedom Riders     
Description: Join the courageous band of students and civil rights activists called Freedom Riders in 1961 as they challenged segregation in the American South. An NEH-funded website from American Experience with video clips of the participants, interactive time lines, and interactive maps. A series of lesson plans are included.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 7,8,9,10,11



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Mathematics,Physical Education,Science,Social Studies,Geography
Title: Great Websites for Kids     
Description: Created by the American Library Association, this portal website helps parents and children find age appropriate educational materials on the Internet.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Blog Post: Stories of the Mexican Revolution     
Description: In this post, students will learn about the interdependence and interconnectedness of Mexico and the U.S., especially during the late 19th and early 20th century and its impact on the Mexican Revolution. The Revolution spanned twenty years, involving two nations and several colorful public figures. The Revolution encouraged the development of music and culture, changed the everyday lives of people, and had political and social repercussions that continue today. Protection of economic and political interests drove the U.S. to intervene in Mexico both politically and militarily. The rural Mexican poor wanted redistribution of land, while others in Mexico called for a more even distribution of wealth. The resulting violence caused mass migration from Mexico to the U.S., creating strong communities of Mexicans and Mexican Americans. Written by L. Stephen Velasquez, Associate Curator in Division of Home and Community Life, this post is published on the Museum's "O Say Can You See?" blog.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: American Writers     
Description: A permanent archive for educators, researchers, and everyone interested in the writers featured in the C-SPAN series.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Blog Post: Memories of a Wartime Poster Model     
Description: In this post, students will learn the story of Ms. Weslee W. D'Audney, a woman who modeled for a government poster during World War II. Students will also discover the challenges of managing the Smithsonian's large collection of war-related posters. Written by David Haberstich, Associate Curator in the Museum's Archives Center, this post is published on the Museum's "O Say Can You See?" blog.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Social Studies
Title: For All the World to See: Visual Culture and the Struggle for Civil Rights     
Description: Through a host of media-including photographs, television and film, magazines, newspapers, posters, books, and pamphlets-the project explores the historic role of visual culture in shaping, influencing, and transforming the fight for racial equality and justice in the United States from the late-1940s to the mid-1970s.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution: Justice     
Description: Students will learn about the efforts of Japanese Americans to receive justice after their internment during World War II. This section of http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/experience/" A More Perfect Union , an online exhibition, uses artifacts from the Museum's collections, primary source documents, photographs and oral histories to discuss the court cases brought against the government, the formal apologies and efforts of redress by the government and the successes of members of the Japanese American community in post-war United States . Oral history transcripts are available in each subsection of this webpage.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Satellite Lunch Box     
Description: The Soviet launch of the Sputnik satellite in late 1957 sparked interest in the United States in science education even among elementary school children.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: Segregated America     
Description: In this online exhibition, students will learn how racism, social attitudes and policies such as Jim Crow laws and poll taxes led to the Plessy v. Ferguson case which legalized segregation. Segregated America is the first section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: Achieving Equality     
Description: Students will learn about the equal rights movements that were inspired by the Brown v. Board decision, as well as the continuing struggles to bring equal opportunities to all Americans. Legacy: Achieving Equality is the sixth and final section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: A Landmark in American Justice     
Description: Students will learn about the lawyers who argued for and against segregation in the Supreme Court, the arguments that they used, and the importance of Chief Justice Earl Warren and the final decision in the Brown v. Board of Education case. The Decision: A Landmark in American Justice is the fifth section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: Five Communities Change a Nation     
Description: Students will learn about the communities and cases that turned to the courts to demand better educational opportunities for their children in the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. Five Communities Change a Nation is the fourth section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: An Organized Legal Campaign     
Description: Students will learn how leaders of the Howard University law school and the Legal Defense Fund of the NAACP prepared to fight segregation in the nation's public schools. An Organized Legal Campaign is the third section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education: Separate and Unequal Education     
Description: Students will learn how laws and customs led to separate and unequal education for people of color in the United States and the efforts made by citizens to guarantee equal education in the century before the Brown v. Board of Education decision. The Battleground: Separate and Unequal Education is the second section of the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Family Photo Album     
Description: Mary Taylor used her 35mm Bell and Howell camera to document her family's life in the black community of Los Angeles, California, during the mid-20th century. She turned a discarded wallpaper sample book into a treasured family heirloom. Taylor's family photographs including 19th-century tintypes, turn-of-the-century hand-colored portraits, and albums from the 1950s to the 1970s provide insight into the African American experience in the United States over the past century. National Museum of American History
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education Timeline     
Description: This timeline provides an overview of events related to the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court Case , from the 1849 case, Roberts v. the City of Boston , to the 2003 case, Grutter v. Bollinger . This resource is available as a downloadable PDF, and is included in the online exhibition entitled http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education .
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Teatro Campesino Poster     
Description: The Teatro Campesino was founded by Luis Valdez in 1965 to energize the political message of the United Farmer Workers of America using song, music, and drama. Modern, bicultural, and socially aware, the street theater of the Teatro Campesino is a touchstone of Chicano art. At first taking their performances to the fields, Teatro Campesino actors and writers used the language and stories of working men and women to advance the civil rights of Mexican Americans and to celebrate and reengage with their history and popular traditions. Like many Chicano art forms...
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Tierra o Muerte Poster     
Description: Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the annexation of Texas, the land claims of many Mexican families were not respected, either by the new English-speaking settlers or by the U.S. government. Dispossession from family- and community-owned lands dealt a severe economic blow to the livelihood of generations of Mexican Americans. The issue of land evokes especially bitter memories in New Mexico. In 1967, the year this poster was made with the slogan Tierra o Muerte, meaning Land or Death, a Hispanic land rights organization called La Alianza, led by Reies Lpez Tijerina, raided the Rio Arriba County courthouse in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico. In addition to reclaiming land from the government of New Mexico, the goals of the raid were to free imprisoned Alianza members and to arrest the district attorney who was prosecuting them as communists and outside agitators. The raid on the courthouse was ultimately unsuccessful and Tijerina served time in a federal prison. Although seen by some as a divisive figure, Reies Lpez Tijerina was as recognizable as Cesar Chavez to many Chicano activists of the late 1960s. Mirroring similar political tensions in the African American community, Chicano civil rights activists were torn between leaders such as Chavez, who advocated nonviolence, and leaders like Tijerina, whose political strategy was decidedly more militant.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Digital History     
Description: This EDSITEment-reviewed Web site, provided by the University of Houston, contains extensive resources for the teaching of American History at all educational levels. The site contains classroom handouts and fact sheets, learning modules devoted to significant periods in American history, resource guides, lesson plans, and online exhibitions.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: WANN microphone     
Description: WANN represents a significant moment in American cultural history-the rise of black-oriented broadcasting. Although blacks constituted 10 percent of the population, black interest in broadcasting on any scale, didn't begin until 1948. That year WDIA in Memphis became the first station to go to a format with exclusively black on-air personnel. Shortly after, a handful of stations committed to black interests. WANN was one of the first half-dozen. The station went on the air in 1948, and by 1950 owner and manager Morris Blum had directed his station to the black community in Annapolis and the surrounding area.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Bracero History Archive     
Description: This website provides online access to a collection of oral histories, photos, documents, and objects related to bracero history. Students can browse the archive, use social bookmarking tools to share resources, add their own notes and make a poster using items from the archive, and contribute to the archive by adding their own stories about the bracero program. The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History is part of a consortium of museums, universities, and cultural institutions documenting and preserving the history of the bracero program, a little-known chapter of American history in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the United States between 1942-1964 on short-term labor contracts. The Bracero History Project has recorded more than 600 oral histories and has collected many objects.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Religion,Science,Social Studies,Geography
Title: Encyclopedia of Alabama     
Description: A free, authoritative source information about the history, politics, geography, and culture of the state of Alabama; updated regularly to ensure that the content is accurate and accessible. The editors are continually adding new entries, photographs, and maps, so check back frequently to see what's new.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: C1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: March on Washington Handbill     
Description: The March on Washington, August 28, 1963, was the largest civil rights demonstration the nation had ever witnessed.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Children in Urban America     
Description: This EDSITEment-reviewed Web site, from Marquette University, provides hundreds of documents and images about children in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. Drawn from newspapers, government and other official records, oral histories, memoirs and many other sources, the documents show how children experienced city life during the last century and a half. Users can find resources related to work, play, leisure, schooling, health and welfare.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: C1,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: University of Massachusetts Amerherst     
Description: With help from the Verizon Foundation, the W.E.B. Du Bois Center and the Department of Special Collections (SCUA) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst is taking on the ambitious goal of digitizing one of the most extraordinary collections documenting the 20th century African American experience: the Papers of W.E.B. Du Bois. Du Bois Online will bring the insights of one of the great intellectuals and activists of the early Civil Rights movement to an avid audience throughout Massachusetts and worldwide. Offering a unique and compelling suite of resources, this site will assist educators in engaging students in discussions about some of the most vexing, but important, issues in recent American history, from the struggle for civic equality and social justice to the challenges and fundamental responsibilities of citizenship in a diverse and complex nation.
Thinkfinity Partner: Verizon Thinkfinity
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Greensboro Lunch Counter     
Description: On February 1, 1960, four African American college students--Ezell A. Blair, Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond--sat down at this "whites only'' lunch counter at the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused, and when asked to leave, the students remained in their seats in protest. Their peaceful sit-down was a watershed event in the struggle for civil rights and helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South. National Museum of American History
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: Know LA: Encyclopedia of Louisiana     
Description: A free, authoritative source information about the history, politics, geography, and culture of the state of Louisiana; updated regularly to ensure that the content is accurate and accessible. The editors are continually adding new entries, photographs, and maps, so check back frequently to see what's new.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: C1,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Geography,Social Studies
Title: Real-World Geography: Charles Morton     
Description: Article. Profile of museum administrator and civil rights activist Charles Morton.
Thinkfinity Partner: National Geographic Education
Grade Span: C1,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Julia Child's Pyrex Measuring Cup     
Description: The well-known cookbook author and television cooking show star Julia Child had a number of the most commonly used American kitchen measuring devices in her kitchen. Now in the collections of the National Museum of American History, Julia's Pyrex glass one- and two- cup measures, are marked in both English measurements (1 cup; 8 oz.) and in metric (250 ml). National Museum of American History
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Social Studies
Title: Smithsonian National Museum of American History     
Description: The Web site for the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History features virtual exhibits, background on the museum, and an overview of the museum's collections. Also included are resources for teachers, the Smithsonian Store, and details regarding internships, workshops, and other opportunities to get involved.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Foreign Languages,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: EDSITEment Websites     
Description: This page from EDSITEment provides links to top humanities sites on the Web. All sites linked to EDSITEment have been reviewed for content, design, and likely impact in the classroom. They cover a wide range of humanities subjects, from American history to literature, world history and culture, language, art, and archaeology, and have been judged by humanities specialists to be of high intellectual quality. EDSITEment is the product of a partnership forged among the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Council of the Great City Schools, WorldCom Foundation and the National Trust for the Humanities and is a member of the MarcoPolo consortium.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: April Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering April holidays and special events. April is National Poetry Month and the calendar links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to this theme.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: Humanities Articles     
Description: This EDSITEment resource spotlights their selection of the best Humanities Web sites and provides links to the selected sites along with information about how sites are selected.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement     
Description: This resource from the National Park Service offers a virtual tour of historic places related to the modern civil rights movement. The site provides textual information and a variety of images.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies,Geography
Title: Digital History Reader     
Description: The Digital History Reader (DHR) is comprised of two main content areas, each broken out into modules.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project     
Description: A center for study of the civil rights leader and his era.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: C1,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: September Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering September holidays and special events. September's theme is '' The U.S. Constitution,'' and this calendar includes links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to this theme.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies,Arts
Title: EDSITEment     
Description: The National Endowment for the Humanities' EDSITEment Web site offers the best of the humanities on the Web. The site includes subject-based access to top humanities sites, EDSITEment lesson plans and at-home activities, and additional learning activities.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Social Studies
Title: Guggenheim Museum     
Description: In 1959, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of modern and contemporary art opened in New York City. Designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the modern structure marked a bold departure from traditional museum design.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Science,Social Studies
Title: nuclear energy     
Description: Encyclopedic entry. Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Nuclear energy can be used to create electricity, but it must first be released from the atom.
Thinkfinity Partner: National Geographic Education
Grade Span: C1,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies
Title: December Calendar     
Description: This EDSITEment calendar is a collection of peer-reviewed Web sites and EDSITEment lesson plans covering December holidays and special events. The calendar covers topics such as the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and the Boston Tea Party, and includes links to many EDSITEment lesson plans, Web site features and additional learning activities related to these and other topics.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Treasures of American History: American Identity     
Description: Many of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History's treasures give insight into what it has meant to be an American. In this section of the online exhibition entitled "Treasures of American History'' , students will explore the diverse roots of American culture as well as common experiences shared across lines of race, ethnicity, and region. They will learn how culturally, Americans have defined themselves in many ways; through artistic expression, ethnic traditions, work and play, and home and community life. A Spanish version of the exhibition is available on the exhibition's homepage.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: African American History Month     
Description: The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the generations of African Americans who struggled with adversity to achieve full citizenship in American society.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,C1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts,Social Studies
Title: 1968 Exhibit     
Description: The Minnesota Historical Society, in partnership with the Atlanta History Center, the Chicago History Museum and the Oakland Museum of California, curated a major exhibit documenting this pivotal year. The year saw the peak of the Vietnam War, the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert Kennedy, riots at the Democratic National Convention, assertions of Black Power at the Olympic Games and feminist demonstrations at the Miss America pageant.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: C1,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Geography,Social Studies
Title: The Selma-to-Montgomery Marches     
Description: Article. Article on how civil rights activists marched from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, and helped the Voting Rights Act of 1965 pass.
Thinkfinity Partner: National Geographic Education
Grade Span: C1,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



Thinkfinity Interactive Games


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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Freedom Riders     
Description: Join the courageous band of students and civil rights activists called Freedom Riders in 1961 as they challenged segregation in the American South. An NEH-funded website from American Experience with video clips of the participants, interactive time lines, and interactive maps. A series of lesson plans are included.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 7,8,9,10,11



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: The Presidency: All the President's Children     
Description: How would you like to be a kid living in the White House? In this activity, students will match clues with images of children who lived in the White House in order to learn about their lives as they lived in the presidential mansion. As part of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History's online exhibition "The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden'' , this activity will help students understand more about the Presidency and life in the White House.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Brown v. Board of Education Annotated Bibliography     
Description: This downloadable, annotated bibliography accompanies the online exhibition, http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/index.html" Separate is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education . It includes links to online teacher materials and age appropriate works of fiction and nonfiction for students and adults.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: The Bracero Archive-Learning From Documents     
Description: In this activity, one of three on the Bracero Archive website, students will examine two public laws and other primary resources related to the Bracero worker program and apply their knowledge to evaluate whether the program was carried out as intended.The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History is part of a consortium of museums, universities, and cultural institutions documenting and preserving the history of the bracero program, a little-known chapter of American history in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the United States between 1942-1964 on short-term labor contracts.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: The Bracero Archive-Learning From Photos     
Description: In this activity, one of three on the Bracero Archive website, students will discuss their thoughts on immigration, learn about the Bracero labor program, and use photographs to develop deeper understandings of the Bracero labor program.The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History is part of a consortium of museums, universities, and cultural institutions documenting and preserving the history of the bracero program, a little-known chapter of American history in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the United States between 1942-1964 on short-term labor contracts.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies
Title: Sounds Historic     
Description: Explore the relationship between history and music with the pieces and activities from the Sounds Historic concert, performed by the National Symphony Orchestra. Learn how music can be inspired by history, capture history, or even make history.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies
Title: Musical Theater in America     
Description: Through examples of the best that Broadway musicals have to offer, explore the history of musical theater in America; its structure and elements of a musical; musical theater's role in making social commentary, and its legacy.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies
Title: Ralph Stanley: The Roots of Country Music     
Description: Learn about the beginnings of country music and its early innovators through the stories and music of three of country music's most respected musicians: mountain music legend Dr. Ralph Stanley, Jim Lauderdale and James Shelton.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Health,Science,Social Studies
Title: Whatever Happened to Polio?: Activities     
Description: These three activities, including an interactive game called "Got Ramps?'' , an animation illustrating the Lifecycle of the Polio Virus and a downloadable sheet for coloring, are part of the online exhibition entitled "Whatever Happened to Polio?'' , from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. "Got Ramps?'' illustrates the changes in architectural barriers between 1955 and 2005, before and after the Architectural Barriers Act (1968) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990). Playing the part of a wheelchair user, students choose a postcard and make the decisions required to deliver it to the post office. They can then email the virtual postcard to someone that they know. By viewing the animated "Lifecycle of the Polio Virus'' , students will learn how the poliovirus begins the infection process. Students can then use the downloadable illustration to color in the poliovirus lifecycle.
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies
Title: Blues Journey     
Description: Out of the hardships of Black Americans at the turn of the 20th century came the blues, a music that helped ease their suffering.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies, Science
Title: Sputnik: Art/Space     
Description: The space age began on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik-the first artificial satellite. Around the world, millions of people tuned their radios to hear it beeping or waited outside to watch it pass overhead.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Changing Gender Roles on the World War II Home Front     
Description: Kick-off a research project on gender roles on the World War II home front with two brief video clips and a selection of primary sources. Once students have analyzed the photographs and wartime advertisements, begin a research project on women during World War II. This lesson plan (which includes background information and full-color primary sources) was produced to accompany the exhibition "The Price of Freedom: Americans at War,'' by the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. National Museum of American History
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Arts, Social Studies
Title: Blues Journey: Page to Stage     
Description: Join playwright Jerome Hairson and director Scot Reese as they bring the story of Blues Journey from page to stage, developing the original book of blues lyrics into a fully realized play, rich with musical performances. Blues Journey follows the life of a blues performer as he learns to play, finds fame, and witnesses the blues evolve into rock-and-roll in this world premiere Kennedy Center original production based on the children's book by Walter Dean Myers.
Thinkfinity Partner: ArtsEdge
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: The Price of Freedom: Learning Resources     
Description: Included in this collection of learning resources connected with the online exhibition entitled "The Price of Freedom: Americans at War'' , are "Who Am I? A History Mystery'' , an interactive game in which students select a mystery character from the Civil War and examine objects that hold the key to their identity, and a teacher's manual that contains fifteen classroom activities for students in grades 5-12. National Museum of American History
Thinkfinity Partner: Smithsonian
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



Thinkfinity Learning Activities


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Subject: Language Arts,Social Studies,Arts
Title: EDSITEment     
Description: The National Endowment for the Humanities' EDSITEment Web site offers the best of the humanities on the Web. The site includes subject-based access to top humanities sites, EDSITEment lesson plans and at-home activities, and additional learning activities.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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Subject: Social Studies
Title: Interview your Parents, Family, and Neighbors     
Description: In this EDSITEment after school activity, parents and children learn about all the ways the baseball player Jackie Robinson has influenced our lives and history.
Thinkfinity Partner: EDSITEment
Grade Span: 6,7,8,9,10,11,12



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