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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Christy Cobb
System: Covington County
School: Straughn Elementary School

  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 12968

Title:

Congruent Figures

Overview/Annotation:

This lesson is an introduction to a unit about congruent shapes. Students will begin by listening to a book about shapes. They will then complete several hands-on activities, including sorting shapes, using their bodies to form congruent shapes, and using activities on the Internet to practice forming congruent shapes.


 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
TC2 (K-2)
2. Identify applications and operations of various technology systems.
Examples: applications—word processing, multimedia presentation software
operations—opening, closing, and saving files
  • Using accurate terminology related to technology
  • Example: "press," not "hit," keys
  • Using input devices to enter letters, numbers, and symbols
  • Using special functions of input devices
  • Example: keyboard shortcuts
  • Labeling storage media
  • Removing storage media safely
  •  
    TC2 (K-2)
    7. Use digital tools to access and retrieve information.
    Examples: online libraries, multimedia dictionaries, search engines, directories
  • Evaluating accuracy of digital content
  • Example: determining fact versus opinion
     
    MA2015 (K)
    3. Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). [K-CC3]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    4. Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. [K-CC4]
    a. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object. [K-CC4a]
    b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. [K-CC4b]
    c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger. [K-CC4c]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    5. Count to answer "how many'" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects. [K-CC5]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    6. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (Include groups with up to ten objects.) [K-CC6]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    16. Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.) [K-MD3]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    19. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid"). [K-G3]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    20. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices or "corners"), and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). [K-G4]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    21. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. [K-G5]
     
    MA2015 (K)
    22. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. [K-G6]
    Example: "Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle'"
     
    MA2015 (1)
    18. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]
     
    MA2015 (1)
    20. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as "right rectangular prism.") [1-G2]
     
    MA2015 (1)
    21. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares; describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters; and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. [1-G3]
     
    MA2015 (2)
    24. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. (Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring.) Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. [2-G1]
     
    MA2015 (2)
    25. Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares, and count to find the total number of them. [2-G2]
     
    MA2015 (2)
    26. Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares; describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc.; and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, or four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. [2-G3]
     

    Local/National Standards:

     

    Primary Learning Objective(s):

    Students will recognize and form congruent shapes and figures.

    Additional Learning Objective(s):

     

     Preparation Information 

    Total Duration:

    61 to 90 Minutes

    Materials and Resources:

    Book of Shapes by Margery W. Brown, variety of construction paper shapes, index cards, pencils, bag or canister titled "Shapes Bag" or "Shapes Canister", small wooden sticks, construction paper or copy paper, glue

    Technology Resources Needed:

    Computer with Internet access

    Background/Preparation:

     

      Procedures/Activities: 
     
    1.)The teacher will begin by reading Book of Shapes by Margery W. Brown. Then the teacher should inform students that shapes can come in different shapes and sizes, but shapes that have the same form and size are called congruent.

    2.)The students will be given a variety of shapes in different sizes. (Some should be congruent.) These can be shapes the teacher has already cut out or a step may be added by making copies of shapes and having students cut them out for themselves.

    3.)Ask the students to sort the figures that have the same number of sides into groups. "How many groups can you form?" (Example: triangles in one group, squares and rectangles in another group, etc.)

    4.)Tell students to place the figures in each group on top of each other. Have them try to line up the sides and angles. "How are the figures in each group the same?" "How are they different?"

    5.)Now have students form groups of figures that are the same shape and size. "How many groups can you form?" (Remind students that these figures are congruent.)

    6.)Give students an index card. Have them write the word "yes" in large print on one side and "no" in large print on the other side. (These cards can be used over an over again throughout the year in different subjects). Have students pull out two shapes at a time from the "Shapes Bag" or "Shapes Canister." Allow all students to hold up their yes/no cards to show whether they think the shapes are congruent or not.

    7.)Divide the class into two teams. The teacher will instruct one team to come to the front of the room, where there is a large open area. Then the team will be instructed to form two shapes, either congruent, or non-congruent, using only their bodies. Give them a few minutes to get organized and set up. Then have the other team try to guess whether team one is congruent or not! Teams will alternate forming shapes and guessing until one team gets five points!

    8.)The teacher will give each student a sheet of construction paper or white copy paper, small wooden craft sticks, and glue. The students will be instructed to form two congruent shapes out of the sticks and glue them to their papers.

    9.)Students will be paired in groups of two. Each group will visit the following website. One partner will form a shape on the website and challenge the other partner to form a congruent one.
    (Principles and Standards for School Mathematics)
    This website contains information and games about shapes and congruency.

    10.)Allow students an opportunity to look at the following website which shows some congruent figures.
    (Math.com)
    The Math.com website shows some congruent figures and even highlights the corresponding parts of the figures when you move your mouse cursor over them.


      Assessment  

    Assessment Strategies

    The teacher will assess by using a teacher-made test showing some congruent shapes and some non-congruent shapes in different sizes. Students must identify the congruent shapes.


    Acceleration:

     

    Intervention:

     
    Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

    Presentation of Material Environment
    Time Demands Materials
    Attention Using Groups and Peers
    Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

    Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.
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