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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Chanda Davis
System: Huntsville City
School: Hampton Cove Middle School

  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 26153

Title:

Genetic Babies

 

Overview/Annotation:

Students will explore Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics in this lesson. Students will be paired in male and female groups. If girls and boys can't be evenly divided, same sex students can be paired to represent research scientists. Different candy will represent alleles for various characteristics. Students will combine dominant and recessive traits to determine the phenotype and genotype of their genetic babies. The genetic baby will be designed and displayed for peers to view.

This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.


 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
S1 (7)
11. Identify Mendel's laws of genetics.
  • Recognizing Down's syndrome and sickle cell anemia as inherited genetic disorders
  • Using a monohybrid Punnett square to predict the probability of traits passed from parents to offspring
  •  
    S1 (8)
    1. Identify steps within the scientific process.
  • Applying process skills to interpret data from graphs, tables, and charts
  • Identifying controls and variables in a scientific investigation
  • Measuring dimension, volume, and mass using Systéme International d'Unités (SI units)
  • Identifying examples of hypotheses
  • Identifying appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments used to conduct an investigation
  •  
    SC2015 (7) Life Science
    12. Construct and use models (e.g., monohybrid crosses using Punnett squares, diagrams, simulations) to explain that genetic variations between parent and offspring (e.g., different alleles, mutations) occur as a result of genetic differences in randomly inherited genes located on chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.
     

    Local/National Standards:

    National Standard: LS 2c: Every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

    National Standard: LS 2d: Hereditary information is contained in the genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. Each gene carries a single unit of instruction. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands different genes.

    National Standard: LS 2e: The characteristics of an organism can be described in terms of a combination of traits. Some traits are inherited an others result from interactions with the environment

    Primary Learning Objective(s):

    Students will investigate how traits are inherited.
    Students will understand the functions of alleles.
    Students will learn the difference between heredity and genetics.
    Students will understand the functions of dominant and recessive alleles.

    Additional Learning Objective(s):

    Students will learn and apply the understanding of  the following terms: heredity, dominant trait, recessive trait,gene, allele, phenotype, genotype, probability, and Punnett square. Students will understand how to cross genes to determine the probability of the offspring.


     Preparation Information 

    Total Duration:

    31 to 60 Minutes

    Materials and Resources:

    • Plastic Bags for candy for each student
    • a blank copy of a head outline
    • color pencils
    • pencils
    • instruction sheet
    • phenotype and genotype sheet
    • small white boards with erasers

    Technology Resources Needed:

    Teacher or student computer to present slideshows of notes on heredity; ELMO for student demonstrations for Punnett Square calculations, and small white boards for each student to demonstrate understanding of dominant and recessive traits.

    Background/Preparation:

    Before the lab, teacher should separate candy into different bags to represent dominant and recessive traits for the characteristics of the genetic baby. Be sure to number the bags with a sharpy if using plastic and keep a record of types of candy in each bag. Encourage students to put candy back into assigned bags. Also, enforce the importance of students not eating the candy.

    Students should be guided through a discussion of the meaning of heredity, genes, alleles, dominant and recessive traits, and phenotype.

    Teachers should consider a characteristic sheet similar to the following one---it can be modified  based on the type of candy and traits used in the lab.

                                                                                                                 Genotype              Phenotype

    Dimples (E) no dimples (e)

     

     

    Freckles (F) no freckles (f)

     

     

    Clift chin (C) no clift chin (c)

     

     

    Attached ears (A) no attached ears (a)

     

     

    Dark Skin (DD) Medium Skin (Dd)

    Light skin (dd)

     

     

    Straight hair (SS) Curly hair(Ss) Wavy hair (ss)

     

     

    Brown Eyes (BB) hazel eyes (Bb) blue eyes (bb)

     

     

    Boy (XY)

    Girl ( XY)

     

     

     

    Candy Key:

    Peppermint: E

    Green mint: e

    Pink Now or Later: F

    Purple Now or Later: f

    Orange Life Saver: C

    Red Life Saver:  c

    Yellow Jaw Breaker: A

    Green Jaw Breaker:a

    Hershey’s Kiss: D

    Cherry Kiss: d

    Red Sucker: S

    Orange Sucker: s

    Chocolate M&M: B

    Colored M&M: b

    Red Jolly Rancher: x

    Purple Jolly rancher: y

     

    Students should have a clear understanding of Mendel’s laws of heredity, genotype, phenotype, and probability. 

    For a blank face, visit:

    http://www.teachersnetwork.org/dcs/batterup/BBoardTemplate/index.htm

    For an example Punnett square, visit:

    http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_2.htm


      Procedures/Activities: 
     

    Step 1: Students should be guided through a discussion of the meaning of heredity, genes, alleles, dominant and recessive traits, and phenotype.

    Backgound information:

    http://science.howstuffworks.com/heredity-info.htm

    Description: The following website provides questions and solutions for the genetic questions associated with determining probability, genotype and phenotype.

    http://www.hobart.k12.in.us/jkousen/Biology/psquprac.htm

    Title of Web Link: DNA from the Beginning

    Web Link: http://www.dnaftb.org/1/concept/

    Annotation: This website gives a detailed history of Mendel’s laws of genetics as it allows the viewer to stroll through various aspects of the lesson: concepts of heredity, animation, gallery, audio/video, biography, problem and additional links.

    Step 2: Have students to answer at least three practice questions in groups using the white boards to display understanding.

    Example problems:

    http://www.zerobio.com/drag_gr11/mono.htm

    http://www.ksu.edu/biology/pob/genetics/mono.htm

    Step 3: Students will collect bags of candy and separate them based ongenotypes on lab worksheet. Students will complete the phenotype and genotype sections based on the their determination of traits.

    The following key and guide should be used by students to detemine the genotype and phenotype:

    Name_________________Bag Number______ Bag Number____

    Characteristic GenotypePhenotype

    Dimples (E) no dimples (e)

     

     

    Freckles (F) no freckles (f)

     

     

    Clift chin (C) no clift chin (c)

     

     

    Attached ears (A) no attached ears (a)

     

     

    Dark Skin (DD) Medium Skin (Dd)

    Light skin (dd)

     

     

    Straight hair (SS) Curly hair(Ss) Wavy hair (ss)

     

     

    Brown Eyes (BB) hazel eyes (Bb) blue eyes (bb)

     

     

    Boy (XY)

    Girl (XX)

     

     

     

     

    Candy Key:

    Peppermint: E

    Green mint: e

    Pink Now or Later: F

    Purple Now or Later: f

    Orange Life Saver: C

    Red Life Saver:c

    Yellow Jaw Breaker: A

    Green Jaw Breaker:a

    Hershey’s Kiss: D

    Cherry Kiss: d

    Red Sucker: S

    Orange Sucker: s

    Chocolate M&M: B

    Colored M&M: b

    Red Jolly Rancher: x

    Purple Jolly rancher: y

    Step 4: Students should illustrate the genotypes and phenotypes on a blank face.

    For an example of a blank face visit:

    http://www.teachersnetwork.org/dcs/batterup/BBoardTemplate/index.htm

    Step 5: Students will name their babies and hang them in the hall to be viewed by peers.



      Assessment  

    Assessment Strategies

    Students should be assessed by work ethic, phenotype and genotype worksheet, and by quizzing students on a quiz: http://www.quia.com/quiz/806830.html.


    Acceleration:

    Students could analyze genetic mutations using the Internet to research what happens when mitosis, meiosis, or DNA mishaps occur.
    Students can use research on genentic mutations to present as a podcast on the school website.

    Intervention:

    Grouping students based on terms of academic strengths and weaknesses will assist in the understanding in determining phenotypes and genotypes.
    Peer tutoring could help students who have problems understanding the basics of genetics.
    Students can review the lesson by viewing a video on Punnett squares.

    Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

    Presentation of Material Environment
    Time Demands Materials
    Attention Using Groups and Peers
    Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

    Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.
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