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This lesson provided by:
Author: Katrina Williams
System:Jefferson County
School:Irondale Middle School
Lesson Plan ID: 33061
Title:

Drill and Kill No More - Incorporating Verbs, Adverbs, and Prepositions Within the Context of Argumentative Writing

Overview/Annotation:

The technique known as "Drill and Kill" is not effective for the retention of grammar skills. Students are more apt to remember grammar skills when the skills are taught in connection with writing.

The following lesson demonstrates a better way. Yes, the skills must be taught first; however, the “drill skill and kill” method is only 15% of the lesson. The first thing you must do is correlate the different genres of writing with the grammar concepts that go with them.

This lesson will show teachers how to teach adverbs, verbs, and prepositions within the context of an argumentative paper.

This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.

Content Standard(s):
ELA2013(6) 1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.6.1]
ELA2013(6) 21. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. [W.6.1]
ELA2013(6) 24. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 21-23 above.) [W.6.4]
ELA2013(6) 25. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three Language standards in Grades K-6.) [W.6.5]
ELA2013(6) 26. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. [W.6.6]
ELA2013(6) 29. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.6.9]
ELA2013(6) 30. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.6.10]
ELA2013(6) 34. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. [SL.6.4]
ELA2013(6) 37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. [L.6.1]
ELA2013(6) 38. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.6.2]
ELA2013(6) 39. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.6.3]
ELA2013(6) 42. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. [L.6.6]
ELA2013(7) 1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.7.1]
ELA2013(7) 23. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.) [W.7.4]
ELA2013(7) 24. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-7.) [W.7.5]
ELA2013(7) 25. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. [W.7.6]
ELA2013(7) 29. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.7.10]
ELA2013(7) 30. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. [SL.7.1]
ELA2013(7) 34. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. [SL.7.5]
ELA2013(7) 37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.7.2]
ELA2013(7) 38. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.7.3]
ELA2013(7) 39. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.7.4]
ELA2013(8) 1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.8.1]
ELA2013(8) 21. Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. [W.8.2]
ELA2013(8) 23. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.) [W.8.4]
ELA2013(8) 24. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-8.) [W.8.5]
ELA2013(8) 26. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. [W.8.7]
ELA2013(8) 29. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.8.10]
ELA2013(8) 30. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. [SL.8.1]
ELA2013(8) 34. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. [SL.8.5]
ELA2013(8) 37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.8.2]
ELA2013(8) 38. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.8.3]
ELA2013(8) 39. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on Grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.8.4]
Local/National Standards:  
Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence while incorporating the conventions of grammar.

Additional Learning Objective(s):  
Approximate Duration of the Lesson: Greater than 120 Minutes
Materials and Equipment:

Day by Day Instructional Guide (Included)

Revising and Editing Task Sheet (Included)

Pre-Writing Diagram (Included)

Argumentative Paper Rubric (Included)

Sample Incorrect First Paragraph (Included)

 

Things You Will Need to Gather

Reinforcement Activity or Worksheet- Action Verbs, Prepositional Phrases, and Adverbs

A Copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech

Designated Area in the Classroom for Conferencing (Days 6 and 7)

List of Topics

Pink, Yellow, and Green Highlighters

Technology Resources Needed:

Students will need access to a computer lab to type the final draft of the paper.

Background/Preparation:

Students should have knowledge of nouns and prepositions.

Procedures/Activities:

Day 1 - Effective Technique

Introduce argumentative writing to the students.  Explain the grammar skills that you will be incorporating into the writing and how strong verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases will aid in the development of an argumentative writing piece.  Give the students a copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech.  Allow them to compare and contrast the two argumentative pieces.  A Venn Diagram is an excellent way to do this!  Don’t get bogged down with labeling yet.  Allow students to use their inquiry and investigation skills to fill out the Venn Diagram.

Introduce/Review action verbs. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, their function, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Provide examples of glowing verbs, and advise students to stay away from dull ones. Use a T-Chart, and complete this activity as a class. Allow students to call out dull and glowing verbs. Discuss how dull verbs can affect writing.

Now, put the students in groups of 2 or 3. Give them the incorrect sample argumentative paragraph (see attached). Allow them to make changes to it. Discuss the changes. Again, reiterate why good writers incorporate glowing verbs when they write.

Day 2

Introduce/Review prepositional phrases to the students. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, how they can modify nouns, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Be sure to explain that a prepositional phrase should be placed next to the word that is modifying.

Ex. The woman gave me a hug in the house.

Correct Sentence: The woman in the house gave me a hug.

Explain how misplaced prepositional phrases can be confusing for readers. Emphasize that they should be careful when incorporating prepositional phrases. Give the students the incorrect paragraph from yesterday. Allow them to find and correct the misplaced prepositional phrases.

Day 3

Finish yesterday’s lesson if you didn’t have time. Introduce/Review adverbs. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, what they modify, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Explain how adverbs can be misused and overused.

Give the students the incorrect argumentative paragraph from yesterday. Allow them to find 3 awkward adverbs and insert 3 glowing adverbs into the writing. Discuss how the adverbs add depth to the writing piece.

Day 4

Students should have a topic today. Tell them to give their argumentative writing piece a title. The title must have an adverb. Give the students the rubric for the writing piece, so they will know exactly what you will be grading. Go over the rubric with the students. Discuss your expectations for this paper.  Give students a copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech.

Students should answer the following questions about both speeches.

What claims are being made? What evidence or reasons support this claim? (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.1a)

How do the writers demonstrate an understanding of the topic? What credible sources are used?  (CCRS - W.6.1b, W.7.1b, W.8.1b)

What words, phrases, and clauses are used to show the relationship between the claims and supporting reasons?  (CCRS - W.6.1c, W.7.1c, W.8.1c)

How is a formal style of writing established and maintained? (CCRS - W.6.1d, W.7.1d, W.8.1d)

What words, phrases, and clauses are used to show the relationship between the claims and supporting reasons?  (CCRS - W.6.1c, W.7.1c, W.8.1c)

How is a formal style of writing established and maintained? (CCRS - W.6.1d, W.7.1d, W.8.1d)

How do the writers conclude?  (CCRS - W.6.1e, W.7.1e, W.8.1e)

Discuss the effectiveness of each speech. Explain that you should be able to effectively answer all of these questions when you read their paper.

Give students a list of topics. Tell them to choose a topic of interest.

Pre-Writing

Now, it’s time for pre-writing. Give students the pre-writing diagram (see attached).  Explain how the diagram should be completed.  Students should finish it for homework.

Day 5: The First Draft

Allow students to begin the first draft today. They should skip lines when writing, and they must successfully incorporate everything from your rubric and 5 glowing action verbs, 5 adverbs, and 5 correctly placed prepositional phrases. They should place a circle each action verb, a square around each adverb, and a line under each prepositional phrase. Remind them to follow their pre-writing diagram as it is their guide to writing. The first draft should be finished tonight for homework.

Day 6 - Revising and Editing Day

Give students the revising and editing task sheet (see attached). Students should complete the left side of the task sheet themselves. The right side of the sheet should be completed by their writing partner.

Allow students to come and see you at the conferencing area when the checklist is finished. Let them explain to you how each part of the checklist is satisfied. They should point out their action verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases and tell you how they are used in the paper.  They should also defend their choice of words and phrases.

Day 7: Revising and Editing Day 2

Continue to conference with students as they complete the revising and editing task sheet. When they are finished, give them a reinforcement activity action verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

Day 8: Final Draft (Optional in-class or out of class activity)

Students should compose their final drafts today. This can be done in the computer lab.

 


Attachments:**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. SampleFirstParagraphforthePersuasiveWritingPiece.docx
ArgumentativeWritingRubric.docx
ArgumentativePaperPre-WritingDiagram.docx
TaskChecklist.docx
Assessment Strategies:

The students should be evaluated using the attached rubric.

Extension:
 
Remediation:

Students can be given a sheet with sentences where prepositional phrases and adverbs are missing.  Then, the teacher should write prepositional phrases and adverbs on separate sentence strips. The students should correctly place the prepositional phrases and adverb sentence strips beside the words they modify. 

 

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

Presentation of Material Environment
Time Demands Materials
Attention Using Groups and Peers
Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.
Variations Submitted by ALEX Users:
Alabama Virtual Library
Alabama Virtual Library

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The University of Alabama at Birmingham
The University of Alabama at Birmingham
The Malone Family Foundation
The Malone Family Foundation
Thinkfinity
Thinkfinity
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