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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Katrina Williams
System: Jefferson County
School: Irondale Middle School

  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 33061

Title:

Drill and Kill No More - Incorporating Verbs, Adverbs, and Prepositions Within the Context of Argumentative Writing

Overview/Annotation:

The technique known as "Drill and Kill" is not effective for the retention of grammar skills. Students are more apt to remember grammar skills when the skills are taught in connection with writing.

The following lesson demonstrates a better way. Yes, the skills must be taught first; however, the “dril,l skill and kill” method is only 15% of the lesson. The first thing you must do is correlate the different genres of writing with the grammar concepts that go with them.

This lesson will show teachers how to teach adverbs, verbs, and prepositions within the context of an argumentative paper.

This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.


 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
ELA2015 (6)
1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.6.1]
 
ELA2015 (6)
21. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. [W.6.1]
a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. [W.6.1a]
b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. [W.6.1b]
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. [W.6.1c]
d. Establish and maintain a formal style. [W.6.1d]
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. [W.6.1e]
 
ELA2015 (6)
24. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 21-23 above.) [W.6.4]
 
ELA2015 (6)
25. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three Language standards in Grades K-6.) [W.6.5]
 
ELA2015 (6)
26. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. [W.6.6]
 
ELA2015 (6)
29. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.6.9]
a. Apply Grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics"). [W.6.9a]
b. Apply Grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not"). [W.6.9b]
 
ELA2015 (6)
30. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.6.10]
 
ELA2015 (6)
34. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. [SL.6.4]
 
ELA2015 (6)
37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. [L.6.1]
a. Demonstrate knowledge of subject-verb agreement when interrupted by a prepositional phrase, with inverted word order, and with indefinite pronouns as subjects. (Alabama)
b. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). [L.6.1a]
c. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). [L.6.1b]
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.* [L.6.1c]
e. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).* [L.6.1d]
f. Recognize variations from Standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.* [L.6.1e]
 
ELA2015 (6)
38. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.6.2]
a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive or parenthetical elements.* [L.6.2a]
b. Spell correctly. [L.6.2b]
 
ELA2015 (6)
39. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.6.3]
a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader or listener interest, and style.* [L.6.3a]
b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.* [L.6.3b]
 
ELA2015 (6)
42. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. [L.6.6]
 
ELA2015 (7)
1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.7.1]
 
ELA2015 (7)
23. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.) [W.7.4]
 
ELA2015 (7)
24. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-7.) [W.7.5]
 
ELA2015 (7)
25. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. [W.7.6]
 
ELA2015 (7)
29. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.7.10]
 
ELA2015 (7)
30. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. [SL.7.1]
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. [SL.7.1a]
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. [SL.7.1b]
c. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed. [SL.7.1c]
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views. [SL.7.1d]
 
ELA2015 (7)
34. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. [SL.7.5]
 
ELA2015 (7)
37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.7.2]
a. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt). [L.7.2a]
b. Spell correctly. [L.7.2b]
 
ELA2015 (7)
38. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.7.3]
a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.* [L.7.3a]
 
ELA2015 (7)
39. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.7.4]
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. [L.7.4a]
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). [L.7.4b]
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. [L.7.4c]
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). [L.7.4d]
 
ELA2015 (8)
1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. [RL.8.1]
 
ELA2015 (8)
21. Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. [W.8.2]
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. [W.8.2a]
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. [W.8.2b]
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. [W.8.2c]
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. [W.8.2d]
e. Establish and maintain a formal style. [W.8.2e]
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. [W.8.2f]
 
ELA2015 (8)
23. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.) [W.8.4]
 
ELA2015 (8)
24. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-8.) [W.8.5]
 
ELA2015 (8)
26. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. [W.8.7]
 
ELA2015 (8)
29. Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.8.10]
 
ELA2015 (8)
30. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. [SL.8.1]
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. [SL.8.1a]
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. [SL.8.1b]
c. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others' questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. [SL.8.1c]
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. [SL.8.1d]
 
ELA2015 (8)
34. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. [SL.8.5]
 
ELA2015 (8)
37. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.8.2]
a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. [L.8.2a]
b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. [L.8.2b]
c. Spell correctly. [L.8.2c]
 
ELA2015 (8)
38. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.8.3]
a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact). [L.8.3a]
 
ELA2015 (8)
39. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on Grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.8.4]
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. [L.8.4a]
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). [L.8.4b]
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. [L.8.4c]
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). [L.8.4d]
 

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence while incorporating the conventions of grammar.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 

 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

Greater than 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Day by Day Instructional Guide (Included)

Revising and Editing Task Sheet (Included)

Pre-Writing Diagram (Included)

Argumentative Paper Rubric (Included)

Sample Incorrect First Paragraph (Included)

Things You Will Need to Gather

Reinforcement Activity or Worksheet - Action Verbs, Prepositional Phrases, and Adverbs

A Copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech

Designated Area in the Classroom for Conferencing (Days 6 and 7)

List of Topics

Pink, Yellow, and Green Highlighters

Technology Resources Needed:

Students will need access to a computer lab to type the final draft of the paper.

Background/Preparation:

Students should have knowledge of nouns and prepositions.


  Procedures/Activities: 
 

Day 1 - Effective Technique

1. Introduce argumentative writing to the students.  Explain the grammar skills that you will be incorporating into the writing and how strong verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases will aid in the development of an argumentative writing piece.  Give the students a copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech. Allow them to compare and contrast the two argumentative pieces. A Venn diagram is an excellent way to do this! Don’t get bogged down with labeling yet. Allow students to use their inquiry and investigation skills to fill out the Venn diagram.

2. Introduce/Review action verbs. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, their function, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Provide examples of glowing verbs and advise students to stay away from dull ones. Use a T-Chart, and complete this activity as a class. Allow students to call out dull and glowing verbs. Discuss how dull verbs can affect writing.

3. Now, put the students in groups of 2 or 3. Give them the incorrect sample argumentative paragraph (see attached). Allow them to make changes to it. Discuss the changes. Again, reiterate why good writers incorporate glowing verbs when they write.

Day 2

1. Introduce/review prepositional phrases to the students. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, how they can modify nouns, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Be sure to explain that a prepositional phrase should be placed next to the word that it is modifying.

Ex.: The woman gave me a hug in the house.

Correct Sentence: The woman in the house gave me a hug.

2. Explain how misplaced prepositional phrases can be confusing for readers. Emphasize that they should be careful when incorporating prepositional phrases. Give the students the incorrect paragraph from yesterday. Allow them to find and correct the misplaced prepositional phrases.

Day 3

1. Finish yesterday’s lesson if you didn’t have time. Introduce/review adverbs. Tell what they are, how they can be found in sentences, what they modify, etc. Students should take notes during this part of the lesson. Explain how adverbs can be misused and overused.

2. Give the students the incorrect argumentative paragraph from yesterday. Allow them to find 3 awkward adverbs and insert 3 glowing adverbs into the writing. Discuss how the adverbs add depth to the writing piece.

Day 4

1. Students should have a topic today. Tell them to give their argumentative writing piece a title. The title must have an adverb. Give the students the rubric for the writing piece so they will know exactly what you will be grading. Go over the rubric with the students. Discuss your expectations for this paper. Give students a copy of The Gettysburg Address and the I Have a Dream speech.

2. Students should answer the following questions about both speeches.

What claims are being made? What evidence or reasons support this claim? (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.1a)

How do the writers demonstrate an understanding of the topic? What credible sources are used?  (CCRS - W.6.1b, W.7.1b, W.8.1b)

What words, phrases, and clauses are used to show the relationship between the claims and supporting reasons?  (CCRS - W.6.1c, W.7.1c, W.8.1c)

How is a formal style of writing established and maintained? (CCRS - W.6.1d, W.7.1d, W.8.1d)

What words, phrases, and clauses are used to show the relationship between the claims and supporting reasons?  (CCRS - W.6.1c, W.7.1c, W.8.1c)

How is a formal style of writing established and maintained? (CCRS - W.6.1d, W.7.1d, W.8.1d)

How do the writers conclude?  (CCRS - W.6.1e, W.7.1e, W.8.1e)

3. Discuss the effectiveness of each speech. Explain that you should be able to effectively answer all of these questions when you read their paper.

4. Give students a list of topics. Tell them to choose a topic of interest.

Pre-Writing

Now, it’s time for pre-writing. Give students the pre-writing diagram (see attached). Explain how the diagram should be completed. Students should finish it for homework.

Day 5: The First Draft

1. Allow students to begin the first draft today. They should skip lines when writing, and they must successfully incorporate everything from your rubric and 5 glowing action verbs, 5 adverbs, and 5 correctly placed prepositional phrases. They should place a circle around each action verb, a square around each adverb, and a line under each prepositional phrase. Remind them to follow their pre-writing diagram as it is their guide to writing. The first draft should be finished tonight for homework.

Day 6 - Revising and Editing Day

1. Give students the revising and editing task sheet (see attached). Students should complete the left side of the task sheet themselves. The right side of the sheet should be completed by their writing partner.

2. Allow students to come and see you at the conferencing area when the checklist is finished. Let them explain to you how each part of the checklist is satisfied. They should point out their action verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases and tell you how they are used in the paper. They should also defend their choice of words and phrases.

Day 7: Revising and Editing Day 2

1. Continue to conference with students as they complete the revising and editing task sheet. When they are finished, give them a reinforcement activity using action verbs, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

Day 8: Final Draft (Optional in-class or out of class activity)

1. Students should compose their final drafts today. This can be done in the computer lab.

 



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.

  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

The students should be evaluated using the attached rubric.


Acceleration:

 

Intervention:

Students can be given a sheet with sentences where prepositional phrases and adverbs are missing. Then, the teacher should write prepositional phrases and adverbs on separate sentence strips. The students should correctly place the prepositional phrases and adverb sentence strips beside the words they modify.

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

Presentation of Material Environment
Time Demands Materials
Attention Using Groups and Peers
Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.
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