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Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, World Geography- Human, 2004

1.) Explain the diversity of human characteristics in major geographic realms and regions of the world.

Examples: North America, Middle and South America, Europe, Russia, Africa, Southwest Asia, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Pacific

•  Describing cultural characteristics related to language, architecture, religion, music, art, food, clothing, traditions
•  Identifying human impacts on the cultural landscape
•  Describing physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the state of Alabama
•  Describing how economic factors such as characteristics of the labor force and availability of transportation affect the location of manufacturing and service industries
•  Identifying physical and human factors that attract foreign investment to Alabama
Examples: availability of labor and resources, transportation, favorable government climate, low taxes, labor, productivity, quality of life

•  Analyzing technological advancements to determine their effect on human and physical environments
2.) Explain the interaction between humans and their physical environment.

Examples: migration of people on the landscape, economic interdependence between people and cultures, human settlement, use of property rights to prevent misuse of resources, cooperation/conflict regarding the rationing of Earth and its resources

•  Describing modifications to the environment for daily living
Example: air conditioning in the American South

•  Identifying the size, distribution, and density of Earth's population
•  Describing the effect of natural events on human land use
Examples: flooding of river valleys, climatic extremes, soil erosion, dust storms, sand movement

•  Tracing human migration to and within the United States
Examples: movement of Hispanics to Alabama, movement of African Americans from Alabama and the southern region to the urban North, migration of people toward the Sun Belt regions of the United States

•  Comparing positive and negative effects of physical systems on human systems
Examples:

- positive—improved transportation,

- negative—destructive force of hurricanes

•  Discussing positive and negative effects of humans on the physical environment
Examples:

- positive—prevention of forest fires by proper forest management, planting legumes to return nitrogen to the soil, terracing hillsides to prevent ererosion;

- negative—habitat loss, air and water pollution, oil consumption and shortage

•  Contrasting positive and negative effects of public policies concerning the physical environment
Examples: Clean Air Act of 1990, Environmental Protection Act

3.) Illustrate patterns of land use and population distribution.

Example: utilizing physical and topographic maps, satellite images, and reference and thematic maps

•  Evaluating the impact of urban expansion in developing and developed countries
Example: identifying characteristics of cities in developed countries and comparing them to cities in developing countries

•  Developing maps, charts, and graphs illustrating the world's changing boundaries and spatial relationships
Examples: mapping shifts in political boundaries of countries; mapping rail, air, and highway connections between Alabama and Washington, D.C.

•  Identifying ways in which values, attitudes, and perceptions are reflected in present and past decisions concerning public policy and location of populations
•  Describing factors that influence preferences about where to live and work
Example: surveying members of the community to identify preferred residential or business areas

•  Explaining reasons for human migration to and from certain regions or areas
Example: population shifts from one region to another for employment, retirement, education, and leisure opportunities

4.) Describe global economic interdependence.

Examples: regional specialization, trade, transnationalism, globalization, multinationalism

•  Tracing global and regional effects of political and economic alliances such as NATO, OPEC, and NAFTA
Example: closure of textile mills in Alabama resulting in loss of jobs to other countries, new employment in industries dependent on low-priced imports, and cost of retraining the workforce to meet the needs of a changing economy

•  Describing the distribution of world resources and their likely markets
5.) Analyze contemporary issues to determine their lasting effects on the global environment.

Examples: climatic temperature changes, human innovation, desertification, consequences of population growth or decline on economies, utilization and exhaustion of world resources, acquisition of endangered areas for preservation, environmental degradation, war

•  Determining the most suitable location for a sanitary landfill in an urban region using GIS or a series of maps
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