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Social Studies, Grade 9 - 12, World Geography- Physical, 2004

1.) Identify major landform features on Earth using latitude and longitude and a variety of geographic tools.

Examples: maps, globes, topographic maps, satellite imagery, reference and thematic maps

•  Understanding the concept of plate tectonics in relation to the shape of the world
•  Describing location and physical shape of the world's continents, oceans, and seas
•  Locating major mountains, plateaus, plains, and bodies of water

- mountains—Alps, Andes, Himalaya, Appalachian, Rocky;

- plateaus—Deccan and Tibetan plateaus;

- plains—Great Plains and altiplanos;

- bodies of water—Mississippi, Nile, Congo, Ganges, and Amazon Rivers

2.) Describe Earth's climates and biomes.

Examples: desert, tropical rainforest, tropical savanna, Mediterranean woodland, boreal forest, tundra

•  Describing how temperature, precipitation, and topography work together to determine world climates
•  Using the Koeppen-Geiger classification system to locate and describe world climate regions
•  Describing population adjustments and adaptations to environment and climate
•  Differentiating between world biomes by climate, vegetation, and fauna
3.) Identify components of Earth's physical systems.

•  Describing how physical processes in the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere shape characteristics of places

- atmosphere—weather, wind, atmospheric circulation;

- lithosphere—erosion;

- hydrosphere—rivers and streams;

- biosphere—plant and animal communities

•  Describing characteristics of ecosystems
Examples: biological interdependence of organisms and their environments; effect of physical characteristics on the number, kinds, and distribution of plants and animals in an ecosystem

•  Explaining multiple effects on biomes by an event using cause-and-effect situations
Examples: volcanic eruption event covering topsoil with hardened lava and obliterating flora and fauna, tornadoes damaging housing, floods leading to soil erosion and agricultural losses

4.) Identify world patterns of extreme physical events.

Examples: earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons

•  Describing how extreme events in different world regions affect human settlement
Examples: earthquakes in Turkey, hurricanes in coastal region of eastern United States, tornadoes in Alabama

•  Mapping natural disasters to illustrate alteration of landscapes
5.) Describe the consequences of deliberate and inadvertent human activities in altering the local and global environment.

Examples: restocking of fish, reforestation, crop rotation, depletion of rainforests, air pollution, habitat destruction

•  Discussing the debate over global climate change
6.) Describe long-term management and policies aimed at protecting Earth's resources.

•  Describing the effect of water shortages on human populations
Examples: costs and difficulties of water shortages in the western United States; use of market pricing to conserve water; water disputes between and among the southeastern states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Tennessee

•  Identifying plans to safeguard people and property in the event of major natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes
•  Explaining various perceptions people and communities have regarding natural hazards and how they react to these hazards
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