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Social Studies, Grade 9, World History: 1500 to the Present, 2004

1.) Describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology.

2.) Describe the role of mercantilism and imperialism in European exploration and colonization in the sixteenth century, including the Columbian Exchange.

•  Describing the impact of the Commercial Revolution on European society
•  Identifying major ocean currents, wind patterns, landforms, and climates affecting European exploration
Example: marking ocean currents and wind patterns on a map

3.) Explain causes of the Reformation and its impact, including tensions between religious and secular authorities, reformers and doctrines, the Counter-Reformation, the English Reformation, and wars of religion.

4.) Explain the relationship between physical geography and cultural development in India, Africa, Japan, and China in the early Global Age, including trade and travel, natural resources, and movement and isolation of peoples and ideas.

•  Depicting the general location of, size of, and distance between regions in the early Global Age
Example: drawing sketch maps

5.) Describe the rise of absolutism and constitutionalism and their impact on European nations.

•  Contrasting philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the belief in the divine right of kings
•  Comparing absolutism as it developed in France, Russia, and Prussia, including the reigns of Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick the Great
•  Identifying major provisions of the Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights
6.) Identify significant ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment.


- Scientific Revolution—astronomical theories of Copernicus and Galileo, Newton's law of gravity;

- Age of Enlightenment—philosophies of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau

7.) Describe the impact of the French Revolution on Europe, including political evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of nationalism and liberalism.

•  Identifying causes of the French Revolution
•  Describing the influence of the American Revolution upon the French Revolution
•  Identifying objectives of different groups participating in the French Revolution
•  Describing the role of Napoleon as an empire builder
8.) Compare revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.

•  Identifying the location of countries in Latin America
9.) Describe the impact of technological inventions, conditions of labor, and the economic theories of capitalism, liberalism, socialism, and Marxism during the Industrial Revolution on the economics, society, and politics of Europe.

•  Identifying important inventors in Europe during the Industrial Revolution
•  Comparing the Industrial Revolution in England with later revolutions in Europe
10.) Describe the influence of urbanization during the nineteenth century on the Western World.

Examples: interaction with the environment, provisions for public health, increased opportunities for upward mobility, changes in social stratification, development of Romanticism and Realism, development of Impressionism and Cubism

•  Describing the search for political democracy and social justice in the Western World
Examples: European Revolution of 1848, slavery and emancipation in the United States, emancipation of serfs in Russia, universal manhood suffrage, women's suffrage

11.) Describe the impact of European nationalism and Western imperialism as forces of global transformation, including the unification of Italy and Germany, the rise of Japan's power in East Asia, economic roots of imperialism, imperialist ideology, colonialism and national rivalries, and United States imperialism.

•  Describing resistance to European imperialism in Africa, Japan, and China
12.) Explain causes and consequences of World War I, including imperialism, militarism, nationalism, and the alliance system.

•  Describing the rise of Communism in Russia during World War I
Examples: return of Vladimir Lenin, rise of Bolsheviks

•  Describing military technology used during World War I
•  Identifying problems created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919
Examples: Germany's reparations and war guilt, international controversy over the League of Nations

•  Identifying alliances during World War I and boundary changes after World War I
13.) Explain challenges of the post-World War I period.

Examples: 1920s cultural disillusionment, colonial rebellion and turmoil in Ireland and India, attempts to achieve political stability in Europe

•  Identifying causes of the Great Depression
•  Characterizing the global impact of the Great Depression
14.) Describe causes and consequences of World War II.


- causes—unanswered aggression, Axis goal of world conquest;

- consequences—changes in political boundaries; Allied goals; lasting issues such as the Holocaust, Atomic Age, and Nuremberg Trials

•  Explaining the rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan
•  Identifying turning points of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters
•  Depicting geographic locations of world events between 1939 and 1945
•  Identifying on a map changes in national borders as a result of World War II
15.) Describe post-World War II realignment and reconstruction in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including the end of colonial empires.

Examples: reconstruction of Japan; nationalism in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Africa; Chinese Communist Revolution; creation of Jewish state of Israel; Cuban Revolution; Central American conflicts

•  Explaining origins of the Cold War
Examples: Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, "Iron Curtain," Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Warsaw Pact

•  Tracing the progression of the Cold War
Examples: nuclear weapons, European power struggles, Korean War, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War

16.) Describe the role of nationalism, militarism, and civil war in today's world, including the use of terrorism and modern weapons at the close of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries.

•  Describing the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Russia's struggle for democracy, free markets, and economic recovery and the roles of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin
Examples: economic failures, demands for national and human rights, resistance from Eastern Europe, reunification of Germany

•  Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans
•  Characterizing the War on Terrorism, including the significance of the Iran Hostage Crisis; the Gulf Wars; the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
•  Depicting geographic locations of major world events from 1945 to the present
17.) Describe emerging democracies from the late twentieth century to the present.

•  Discussing problems and opportunities involving science, technology, and the environment in the late twentieth century
Examples: genetic engineering, space exploration

•  Identifying problems involving civil liberties and human rights from 1945 to the present and ways they have been addressed
•  Relating economic changes to social changes in countries adopting democratic forms of government
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