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English Language Arts, Grade 10, 2007

1.) Apply both literal and inferential comprehension strategies, including drawing conclusions and making inferences about characters, motives, intentions, and attitudes in short stories, drama, poetry, novels, and essays and other nonfiction texts.

•  Identifying major historical developments in language and literature in America from the beginnings to 1900
Examples: simplicity of early American literature, religious nature and themes in much early American literature, relationships to historical events and to British literature

•  Using context clues to determine meaning
•  Identifying sequences to enhance understanding
•  Summarizing passages to share main ideas or events
•  Drawing other kinds of conclusions from recreational reading texts
2.) Identify and interpret literary elements and devices, including analogy, personification, and implied purpose.

•  Identifying and interpreting figurative language and imagery, including symbolism and metaphors
•  Interpreting tone from author's word choice
3.) Read with literal and inferential comprehension a variety of informational and functional reading materials, including making inferences about effects when passage provides cause; inferring cause when passage provides effect; making inferences, decisions, and predictions from tables, charts, and other text features; and identifying the outcome or product of a set of directions.


- textual materials--driver's manuals, reference materials, newspapers, career information, high interest magazine articles, subject-area texts

- functional materials--menus, schedules, directions, maps, want ads

•  Following complex or embedded directions
•  Distinguishing author's opinion from factual statements
•  Determining main idea and supporting details in informational and functional reading materials
•  Summarizing passages of informational and functional reading materials
•  Determining sequence of events
4.) Recognize fallacious or illogical thought in essays, editorials, and other informational texts.

•  Evaluating strength of argument in informational texts
•  Recognizing propaganda in informational texts
5.) Compare literary components of various pre-twentieth century American authors' styles.

•  Identifying examples of differences in language usage among several authors
Examples: Anne Bradstreet, Jonathan Edwards, Phillis Wheatley, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry David Thoreau

6.) Determine word meaning in pre-twentieth century American literature using word structure and context clues.

Examples: prefixes, suffixes, root words

7.) Write in persuasive, expository, and narrative modes using an abbreviated writing process in timed and untimed situations.

•  Critiquing content, literary elements, and word choice, including addressing clear, precise, and vivid language
Examples: self editing, peer editing

•  Using a variety of sentence patterns
Example: diagramming, parsing, or showing sentence patterns to check variety in sentence patterns

•  Evaluating opinions, including personal opinions, for supporting details and bias
•  Using active and passive voice when appropriate
8.) Write in a variety of genres for various audiences and occasions, both formal and informal, using an attention-getting opening and an effective conclusion.

•  Developing an effective voice suitable for audience and purpose
9.) Apply principles of Standard English by adjusting vocabulary and style for the occasion.

10.) Justify a thesis statement with supporting details from American literature prior to the twentieth century.

11.) Demonstrate correct use of commas with parenthetical expressions and after introductory adverbial clauses and correct use of semicolons before conjunctive adverbs and in compound sentences with no conjunction.

12.) Demonstrate correct use of singular and plural collective nouns and words with alternate accepted forms; pronoun-antecedent agreement in number and gender; and nominative, objective, and possessive pronoun cases.

13.) Apply the correct use of subject-verb agreement with singular and plural subjects, including subjects compound in form and singular in meaning and subjects plural in form and singular in meaning; intervening prepositional and appositive phrases; and correlative conjunctions.

14.) Edit for incorrect shifts in verb tense in paragraphs, use of verbals, use of dangling participles and misplaced modifiers, and parallelism in phrases.

15.) Use the research process to document and organize information to support a thesis on a literary or nonliterary topic.

Examples: paper on a teacher-approved topic of interest, career paper

•  Managing information by locating, selecting, retrieving, and evaluating primary and secondary sources while using available technology responsibly
•  Differentiating among plagiarized, paraphrased, and appropriately cited selections
16.) Explain the purpose and benefits of using predicting, summarizing, underlining, outlining, note taking, and reviewing as part of personal study skills.

•  Explaining when skimming and scanning are appropriate in studying materials
17.) Critique oral and visual presentations for fallacies in logic.

Examples: circular reasoning, false analogy

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