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English Language Arts, Grade 2, 2007

1.) Demonstrate phonological skills, including manipulating sounds and words of the English language and identifying syllables in two- and three-syllable words.

2.) Apply phonetic strategies to decode unfamiliar and multisyllable words using graphophonemic clues and letter-sound correspondences, including diphthongs and digraphs.

•  Correcting word-recognition errors
Examples: substituting, deleting, omitting

•  Reading phonetically regular and irregular two-syllable words

- regular--table, mitten

- irregular--baby, city

3.) Exhibit vocabulary skills, including explaining simple common antonyms and synonyms and using descriptive words.

Examples: simple common antonyms--up - down, in - out, above - below

•  Responding to questions
•  Using semantic cues to achieve meaning
•  Recognizing words in the environment
•  Using new words from independent reading of stories and texts
•  Recognizing possessive forms
•  Using correct spelling, including spelling of sight words, spelling of unfamiliar words using phonetic strategies, and checking spelling with a dictionary
•  Identifying multiple-meaning words
4.) Demonstrate comprehension of second-grade reading materials across the curriculum, including drawing simple conclusions, classifying ideas and things, identifying sequence, and retelling directions and information from informational and functional reading materials.

Examples: functional materials--maps, simple tables, atlases, encyclopedias

•  Relating events and ideas to specific life experiences
•  Answering what if, why, and how questions
•  Identifying characters
5.) Read with fluency passages containing complex sentences.

Example: sentences with phrases and clauses

•  Reading 90-100 words per minute
•  Recognizing second-grade high-frequency words
Examples: Dolch word lists, basal reader word lists

•  Using punctuation to help phrase
•  Making self-corrections
•  Reading with expression
6.) Differentiate among folktales, tall tales, fables, realistic fiction, and other narrative texts.

•  Recognizing the author's purpose or intent in a variety of texts
•  Inferring the main idea and supporting details in narrative texts
•  Summarizing the plot and characters' actions and motivations in narrative texts
•  Recognizing morals and lessons in narrative texts
7.) Explain how authors use text features to identify key and supporting ideas in informational texts.

Examples: boldface, maps, charts, diagrams

8.) Organize sentences into a paragraph to address a topic or tell a story.

•  Sorting information using graphic organizers
•  Generating a topic sentence and a concluding sentence in a paragraph
•  Drafting a written piece, including an introductory paragraph and a concluding paragraph
•  Editing for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and sentence variety
•  Publishing final draft
•  Using descriptive, narrative, and expository modes of writing
•  Writing free verse poetry to express ideas
9.) Demonstrate correct use of question marks and capitalization of names, months, days of the week, and holidays in written expression.

•  Using abbreviations, apostrophes in contractions, and apostrophes in possessives in writing
•  Using commas in writing
Examples: dates, friendly letter greetings, physical address, items in a series

•  Using exclamation points at the end of sentences to show emotion in writing
10.) Use concrete nouns and action verbs in written communication.


- concrete nouns--teacher, beach, desk, dog

- action verbs--run, eat

•  Describing nouns using adjectives in writing
•  Substituting nouns with pronouns in writing
•  Using singular and plural nouns in writing
11.) Write words and sentences legibly with proper spacing in manuscript.

•  Forming upper- and lower-case letters in cursive
12.) Utilize research skills to collect and record information on a specific topic.

•  Listing key concepts from texts
•  Locating boldface and italicized words to identify essential information
•  Using captions, illustrations, and photographs to extend meaning of written text
13.) Locate information in reference material using alphabetical order.

Examples: dictionary, textbook, nonfiction book

•  Generating oral and written questions before, during, and after research
•  Using table of contents, glossary, and index to locate information
•  Reporting on a specific topic with facts and details
14.) Respond to various types of literature read aloud.

•  Focusing attention on a speaker without interrupting
•  Following multistep oral directions
•  Interpreting presented information
15.) Select appropriate voice tone, gestures, and facial expression to enhance meaning.

•  Using active listening skills
Example: "Stop, Look, and Listen" technique

•  Retelling stories and events in logical order
•  Remaining on topic when speaking
•  Using visual aids, props, and technology in oral presentations
Examples: poster, puppet, slideshow

•  Using appropriate grammar and word choice in oral presentations and in conversations
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