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Social Studies, Grade 4, Alabama Studies, 2004

1.) Identify historical and current economic, political, and geographic information about Alabama on thematic maps.

Examples: weather/climate maps, physical relief maps, waterway maps, transportation maps, political boundary maps, economic development maps, land-use maps, population maps

•  Discussing patterns and types of migrations as they affect the environment, agriculture, economic development, and population changes in Alabama
2.) Describe cultures, governments, and economies of prehistoric and historic Native Americans in Alabama.


- prehistoric Native Americans—Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian;

- historic Native Americans—Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek

•  Identifying locations of prehistoric and historic Native Americans in Alabama
•  Describing types of prehistoric life in Alabama
Examples: plants, animals, people

•  Identifying roles of archaeologists and paleontologists
3.) List reasons for European exploration and settlement in Alabama and the impact of Europeans on trade, health, land expansion, and tribal reorganization of Native American populations in Alabama.

•  Locating European settlements in early Alabama
•  Explaining reasons for conflicts between Europeans and Native Americans in Alabama from 1519 to 1840
Examples: differing beliefs regarding land ownership, religious differences, cultural differences, broken treaties

•  Identifying main causes, key people, and historical documents of the American Revolution and the new nation

- main causes—taxation, lack of representation, distrust of centralized power;

- key people—George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin;

- historical documents—Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States

•  Naming social, political, and economic outcomes of the Creek Civil War and the Creek War in Alabama

- social—adoption of European culture by Native Americans, opening of Alabama land for settlement;

- political—breaking of power of Native Americans, labeling of Andrew Jackson as a hero and propelling him toward presidency;

- economic—acquisition of tribal land in Alabama by the United States

•  Identifying the impact of the Trail of Tears on Alabama's Native Americans
4.) Describe the relationship of the five geographic regions of Alabama to the movement of Alabama settlers during the early nineteenth century.

•  Describing natural resources of Alabama
Examples: water, trees, coal, iron, limestone, petroleum, natural gas, soil

•  Describing the natural environment of Alabama
Examples: wildlife, vegetation, climate, bodies of water

•  Describing human environments created by settlement
Examples: housing, roads, place names

5.) Describe Alabama's entry into statehood, including Alabama's constitutions and the three branches of government.

•  Explaining political and geographic reasons for changes in location of Alabama's state capital
•  Identifying prominent political leaders during early statehood in Alabama
Examples: William Wyatt Bibb, Thomas Bibb, Israel Pickens, William Rufus King

6.) Identify cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.


- cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation;

- economic—transportation, livelihood;

- political—inequity of legal codes

•  Recognizing the impact of slavery on Alabama during the early nineteenth century
•  Identifying major areas of agricultural production using an Alabama map
Example: cotton raised in the Black Belt and fertile river valleys

7.) Identify reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, state rights, and economic disagreements.

•  Identifying Alabama's role in the organization of the Confederacy
Examples: secession convention, Montgomery as first state capital, inauguration ceremony for leaders

8.) Explain Alabama's role in and economic support of the Civil War.

Examples: provision of supplies through the Port of Mobile; armament center at Selma; production of iron products, munitions, textiles, and ships

•  Explaining resulting economic conditions of the Civil War, including the collapse of economic structure, destruction of the transportation infrastructure, and high casualty rates
9.) Describe political, social, and economic conditions in Alabama during Reconstruction.


- political—military rule, presence of Freedmen's Bureau, Alabama's readmittance to the Union, sharecropping;

- social—carpetbaggers, scalawags, Ku Klux Klan (KKK);

- economic—sharecropping, scarcity of goods and money

•  Describing the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
•  Identifying the role of African Americans in politics during Reconstruction in Alabama

- Benjamin Sterling Turner, United States House of Representatives (1871-1873);

- Jeremiah Haralson, Alabama State Legislature (1870-1874) and United States House of Representatives (1875-1877);

- James Rapier, United States House of Representatives (1873-1875)

•  Describing policies of major political parties in Alabama
10.) Describe significant social and educational changes in Alabama during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


- social—implementation of "separate but equal" court decision (Plessy versus Ferguson), birth of National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) through Niagara Movement;

- educational—establishment of normal schools and land-grant colleges such as Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical (A & M) University, Auburn University, and Tuskegee University

•  Explaining the development and changing role of industry, trade, and agriculture in Alabama during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including the rise of populism
•  Explaining the impact of the voting rights revision in the Alabama Constitution of 1901, including Jim Crow Laws
Example: restriction of eligible voters

•  Identifying Alabamians who made contributions in the fields of science, education, the arts, the military, politics, and business during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

- science—George Washington Carver, William Gorgas, Robert Van de Graff;

- education—Booker T. Washington, Julia Tutwiler, Helen Keller, Maria Fearing;

- arts—William Christopher (W. C.) Handy;

- military—Joe Wheeler, Richmond Pearson Hobson;

- politics—John Tyler Morgan, Patti Ruffner Jacobs, Thomas E. Kilby;

- business—William Pettiford

•  Discussing cultural contributions from various regions of Alabama that contributed to the formation of a state heritage
Examples: folklore, folk art, vernacular architecture

11.) Describe the impact of World War I on Alabamians.

Examples: migration of African Americans to the North and West, utilization of Alabama's military installations and training facilities, increased production of goods for war effort

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War I
Example: Alabama Rainbow Division

•  Identifying the use of new technology in World War I
Examples: airplanes, machine guns, chemical warfare

12.) Explain effects of the events of the 1920s and the Great Depression on different socioeconomic groups.


- effects of 1920s—increase in availability of electricity and employment opportunities, increase in wages and product consumption, overproduction of goods, stock market crash;

- effects of Great Depression—overcropping of land, unemployment, poverty, establishment of new federal programs

•  Describing effects of supply and demand on the economy
13.) Describe the economic and social impact of World War II on Alabamians.

Examples: entry of women into workforce, increase in job opportunities, rationing, utilization of Alabama's military installations

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War II
Examples: Tuskegee Airmen, women in the military

•  Locating military bases in Alabama
14.) Describe the social, political, and economic impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement on Alabama.

•  Identifying important people and events of the modern Civil Rights Movement

- people—Martin Luther King, Jr., George C. Wallace, Rosa Parks;

- events—Montgomery bus boycott, Birmingham church bombing, Selma-to-Montgomery march

•  Identifying benefits of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act
15.) Identify major world events that have impacted Alabama since 1950.

Examples: Korean Conflict, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War, War on Terrorism

•  Recognizing Alabamians who have made significant contributions to society since 1950
Examples: Henry "Hank" Aaron, Hugo Black, Paul "Bear" Bryant, Nat "King" Cole, Marva Collins, Jeremiah Denton, A. G. Gaston, Mae C. Jemison, Harper Lee, Willie Mays, Harold (Hal) Moore, Thomas Moorer, Jesse Owens, Condoleezza Rice, Wernher von Braun, George C. Wallace, Lurleen B. Wallace, Hank Williams, Kathryn Tucker Windham

16.) Describe the impact of population growth on cities, major road systems, demographics, natural resources, and the natural environment of Alabama during the twentieth century.

•  Describing how technological advancements brought change to Alabamians during the twentieth century
Examples: improvement of quality of life and expanded employment opportunities through use of electricity, improvement of transportation through introduction of automobiles and airplanes, improvement of communication through use of satellites and cellular telephones

•  Describing the growing influence of foreign-based companies
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