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Science, Grade 5, 2005

1.) Identify evidence of chemical changes through color, gas formation, solid formation, and temperature change.

Example: combining vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas

2.) Define mass, volume, and density.

•  Identifying the atom as the basic building block of matter
•  Relating temperature changes to particle motion
Example: movement of colored dye in hot and cold water

•  Relating density to the sinking or floating of an object in a liquid
3.) Use everyday indicators to identify common acids and bases.

Examples: using grape juice to determine that vinegar is an acid, using juice from boiled red cabbage to determine that baking soda is a base

4.) Describe forms of energy, including chemical, heat, light, and mechanical.

•  Identifying types of potential and kinetic energy
Examples:

- potential—water behind a dam, battery;

- kinetic—water moving across turbine blades

•  Describing alternatives to the use of fossil fuels
Examples: solar energy, geothermal energy, windmill, hydroelectric power, biomass

•  Identifying the transfer of energy by conduction, convection, and radiation
Examples:

- conduction—hot plate heating a pan,

- convection—space heater heating air,

- radiation—sun heating Earth's surface

5.) Contrast ways in which light rays are bent by concave and convex lenses.

•  Describing how a prism forms a visible spectrum
•  Explaining why different objects have different colors
•  Describing how mirrors reflect light
Example: discussing differences in the reflection of light by convex and concave mirrors

•  Describing the relationship between the structure of the eye and sight
•  Identifying types of corrective lenses used to correct different sight problems
Examples:

- convex—farsightedness,

- concave—nearsightedness

•  Identifying the contribution of van Leeuwenhoek to the development of the microscope
6.) Compare effects of gravitational force on Earth, on the moon, and within space.

•  Identifying contributions of Newton to the study of gravity
•  Describing how a spring scale is used to measure weight
•  Explaining how air resistance affects falling objects
7.) Identify common parts of plant and animal cells, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.

•  Comparing unicellular and multicellular organisms
•  Comparing plant and animal cells
8.) Identify major body systems and their functions, including the circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory system, and reproductive system.

9.) Describe the relationship of populations within a habitat to various communities and ecosystems.

•  Describing the relationship between food chains and food webs
•  Describing symbiotic relationships
10.) Identify spheres of Earth, including the geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.

•  Describing technology used to investigate Earth
Examples: sonar, radar, seismograph, weather balloons, satellites

•  Describing the rock cycle
11.) Compare distances from the sun to planets in our solar system.

•  Relating the size of Earth to the size of other planets in our solar system
•  Identifying technology used to study planets
Examples: Hubble telescope, space probes, Mars Exploration Rover

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