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Social Studies, Grade 7, Citizenship: Living in My World, 2004

1.) Describe influences of ancient Greece, the Magna Carta, and the Mayflower Compact on the government of the United States.

•  Identifying essential characteristics of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights as the foundation of the government of the United States
•  Describing the influence of John Locke
•  Explaining essential characteristics of the political system of the United States
Examples: organization and functions of political parties, process of selecting political leaders

2.) Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems.

Examples: monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, pure democracy

3.) Describe essential characteristics of state and local governments in the United States.

•  Identifying major offices and officeholders of state and local governments
•  Explaining the historical background of the 1901 Constitution of Alabama and its impact on state and local governments
Example: lack of home rule

•  Describing how local and state governments are funded
4.) Compare duties and functions of members of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of local, state, and national governments.

•  Identifying geographic and political districts of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of national, state, and local governments
•  Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts within the judicial system of the United States at local, state, and national levels
•  Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments
5.) Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States.

•  Explaining rights of citizens under the Constitution
Examples: due process, right to keep and bear arms, private property right, right to privacy, equal protection, religious expression, habeas corpus

•  Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law
•  Understanding consequences of breaking the law
•  Contrasting juvenile and adult laws and their respective court systems
•  Identifying laws that most affect youth at home, school, and in the community
6.) Describe how people organize economic systems for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services to address the basic economic questions of which goods and services will be produced, how they will be produced, and who will consume them.

•  Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, or local contexts
Example: increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand

•  Analyzing the distribution of urban areas to determine how they are linked together
Example: using distribution maps to examine population flows among cities, suburbs, and small towns

7.) Describe the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, characteristics of a market economy, and supply and demand.

•  Describing the influence of the stock market upon individuals and the economy
•  Analyzing distribution and production maps to determine patterns of supply and demand
•  Describing effects of government policies on the free market
•  Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated
8.) Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, and insurance as well as checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping.

9.) Identify individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States.


- individual—respect for rights of others, self-discipline, negotiation, compromise;

- civic—respect for the law, patriotism, participation in the political process

•  Describing differences in rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens
•  Explaining how United States citizenship is acquired
•  Interpreting an immigration map
•  Identifying character traits that are beneficial to individuals and to the republic of the United States
Examples: honesty, courage, compassion, civility

10.) Describe changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.


- social—family values, peer pressures, educational opportunities;

- economic—career opportunities, disposable income

•  Describing the impact of print and electronic media and the Internet on the American way of life
Examples: fashion trends, consumer spending, increased debt, speed of communication, changes in language and social skills

11.) Describe examples of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence of groups, societies, and nations, using past and current events.

•  Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabama's role
12.) Explain how the United States can be improved by individual and collective participation and by public service.

•  Identifying options for civic and community action
Examples: investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for the construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about the best location for facilities

•  Participating in the political process
Examples: writing letters, being involved in political campaigns and issues

•  Identifying ways adults participate in the political process
Examples: voting, running for office, serving on a jury

•  Applying a problem-solving model to a community project, including constructing a policy statement, budget, and an action plan to achieve one or more goals related to an issue of public concern

Social Studies, Grade 7, Geography, 2004

1.) Describe the world in spatial terms using maps, major physical and human features, and urban and rural land-use patterns.

•  Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, size, shape, distance, direction, location, scale, and symbols
Examples: reference and thematic maps; topographic maps, globes, and map projections; aerial photographs; satellite images; lines of latitude and longitude; cardinal and intermediate directions; fractional, graphic, and verbal scales; conventional symbols used in atlases; Global Positioning System (GPS); Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

•  Using geographic technology to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
•  Analyzing relationships among people, places, and the environment by mapping information about them, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns
2.) Analyze regional characteristics for factors that contribute to change and for their relative importance.

Examples: economic development, accessibility, migration, media image, technological developments

•  Using field observations, maps, and other tools to identify and compare physical characteristics of places
Examples: soils, vegetation, climate

•  Comparing physical and human characteristics of various places using observational data and geographic resources
3.) Describe processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena and human activity.

Examples: plate tectonics and continental drift; ocean and atmospheric circulation; erosion; movements of the sun, moon, and Earth; renewable and nonrenewable resources; impact of hurricanes or typhoons on coastal ecosystems; heavy rainfall on hill slopes after deforestation

•  Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time

- place to place—differences in soils, climates, and topography;

- over time—destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forests and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts

4.) Locate cultural hearths in Europe, Asia, and Africa on maps, globes, and satellite images.

•  Describing physical and human characteristics used to define regions in the Eastern Hemisphere

- physical—landforms, climates, oceans, rivers;

- human—government, economy, language, religion, culture

•  Relating place names to cultural and/or political perspectives
5.) Identify physical, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of selected regions in the Eastern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and Africa.


- physical—principal features, natural resources, weather phenomena;

- economic—agriculture, industry, imports and exports;

- political—distribution and movement of human populations;

- cultural—architecture, foods, clothes, languages, religions

6.) Explain factors that contribute to conflict within and between countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Examples: economic competition for scarce resources, boundary disputes, cultural differences, control of strategic locations

7.) Describe historical and contemporary economic trade networks of regions in the Eastern Hemisphere based upon their geographic location and available resources.

Examples: Silk Road, Sahara salt trade of the 1300s, spice trade of the 1400s-1600s, imperialistic relationships, petroleum production, satellite-based communication systems

8.) Describe positive and negative environmental effects of human actions on the four basic components of Earth's physical systems: atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere.


- atmosphere—possible ozone depletion, Clean Air Act;

- biosphere—deforestation, reduction in biodiversity, expansion of the savanna, desertification, prevention of forest fires by proper forest management;

- lithosphere—land degradation, weathering by polluted air and water, reforestation, restocking of fish, water purification;

- hydrosphere—pesticides washing into river systems, decline of quality groundwater

9.) Analyze environmental consequences of major technological changes in human history for both intended and unintended outcomes.

Examples: nuclear waste storage, depletion of fossil fuel by automobiles, protecting the soil through crop rotation, soil degradation after the invention of the steel-tipped plow, increased food supply

•  Identifying the impact of urban growth on the environment
10.) Describe ways people in the Eastern Hemisphere prepare for natural hazards and disasters.

Examples: earthquake drills in Japan, construction of houses on stilts in typhoon-prone areas

11.) Compare the distribution of natural resources in various parts of the world by mapping locations of major deposits.

•  Relating the importance of energy resources to the development of human societies
•  Discussing the relationship between a country's standard of living and its accessibility to natural resources
12.) Describe problems involved in balancing the impact of human habitation on the environment and the need for natural resources essential for sustaining human life.

•  Assessing differing attitudes of people regarding the use and misuse of resources
•  Predicting the future spatial organization of Earth if present conditions and patterns of consumption, problem-solving innovations, production, and rates of population growth and decline continue
•  Applying a problem-solving model to a geographic issue, including the development of sound arguments for specific actions on the issue
Examples: building a dam and reservoir, constructing a revitalized downtown area, choosing the site of a new landfill

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