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English Language Arts, Grade 8, 2007

1.) Apply strategies, including making inferences to determine theme, confirming or refuting predictions, and using specific context clues, to comprehend eighth-grade recreational reading materials.

•  Applying self-monitoring strategies for text understanding
•  Distinguishing fact from fiction to enhance understanding
•  Determining sequence in recreational reading material
2.) Evaluate the impact of setting, mood, and characterization on theme in specific literary selections.

•  Identifying components of plot
3.) Distinguish among the subcategories of poetry, such as ballads, lyric poems, epics, haiku, and limericks, based on their characteristics.

•  Identifying rhythm and rhyme scheme
4.) Apply strategies appropriate to type of reading material, including making inferences to determine bias or theme and using specific context clues, to comprehend eighth-grade informational and functional reading materials.

•  Applying self-monitoring strategies for text understanding
•  Comparing predicted with actual content in informational and functional reading materials
•  Distinguishing fact from opinion in informational reading materials
•  Confirming author's credentials
•  Determining sequence of steps, events, or information
5.) Explain distinguishing characteristics of odes, ballads, epic poetry, historical documents, essays, letters to the editor, and editorials.

6.) Analyze works of literature for character motivation, mood, tone, theme, similarities across texts, and literary devices.

7.) Compose a business letter, including heading, inside address, salutation, body, closing, and signature.

8.) Write in narrative, expository, and persuasive modes with attention to descriptive elements.

Examples: descriptive elements—sensory detail, figurative language, spatial relationships

9.) Apply mechanics in writing, including punctuating titles using quotation marks, underlining, or italics and using semicolons, conjunctive adverbs, and commas to join two independent clauses or to correct run-on sentences.

•  Demonstrating correct sentence structure by avoiding comma splices in writing
•  Using commas to set off nonessential clauses and appositives in writing
10.) Use prepositional phrases and compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to vary sentence structure.

Example: using sentence diagramming or sentence patterns to illustrate structural variety

•  Using gerunds, infinitives, and participles in writing
•  Recognizing active and passive voice in writing
•  Applying subject-verb agreement rules with collective nouns, nouns compound in form but singular in meaning, compound subjects joined by correlative and coordinating conjunctions, and subjects plural in form but singular in meaning
11.) Write sentence patterns common to English construction.

Examples:

- subject-->verb (S-->V)

- subject-->action verb-->direct object (S-->AV-->DO)

- subject-->action verb-->indirect object-->direct object (S-->AV-->IO-->DO)

- subject-->linking verb-->predicate nominative (S-->LV-->PN)

- subject-->linking verb-->predicate adjective (S-->LV-->PA)

12.) Identify the correct use of degrees of comparison, adjectives and adverb forms, subject-verb agreement with collective nouns when verb forms depend on the rest of the sentence and with compound subjects, including those joined by or with the second element as singular or plural.

•  Recognizing parallelism in phrases and clauses
13.) Combine all aspects of the research process to compose a report.

Examples: outline, rough draft, editing, final copy, works-cited page

•  Taking notes to gather and summarize information
•  Using paraphrasing and documentation of sources to avoid plagiarism
14.) Identify characteristics of spoken formal and informal language.

Examples:

- formal--Standard English, no slang

- informal--dialect, slang

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