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Health Science, Grade 9 - 12, Human Body Structures and Functions, 2009

1.) Use appropriate anatomical terminology.

Examples: proximal, superficial, medial, supine, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior

2.) Identify anatomical body planes, body cavities, and abdominopelvic regions of the human body.

3.) Classify major types of cells, including squamous, cuboidal, columnar, simple, and stratified.

4.) Classify tissues as connective, muscular, nervous, or epithelial.

5.) Identify anatomical structures and functions of the integumentary system.

•  Identifying accessory organs
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the integumentary system
Examples: decubitus ulcer, melanoma, psoriasis

•  Using medical terminology related to the integumentary stystem
•  Assessing the integumentary system for abnormalities
6.) Identify bones that compose the skeletal system.

•  Identifying functions of the skeletal system
•  Identifying subdivisions of the skeleton as axial and appendicular skeletons
•  Classifying types of joints according to their movement
•  Identifying the four bone types
•  Identifying various types of skeletal system disorders
Examples: fractures, arthritis

7.) Identify major muscles, including origins, insertions, and actions.

•  Describing common types of body movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
•  Classifying muscles based on functions in the body, including prime movers, antagonists, synergists, and fixators
•  Comparing skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles based on their microscopic anatomy
•  Identifying diseases and disorders of the muscular system
Examples: muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strain

8.) Identify structures of the nervous system.

•  Explaining differences in the function of the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system
•  Labeling parts of sensory organs, including the eye, ear, tongue, and skin receptors
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the nervous system
Examples: Parkinson's disease, meningitis

9.) Identify structures of the cardiovascular system.

•  Tracing the flow of blood through the body
•  Identifying components of blood
•  Describing blood cell formation
•  Distinguishing among human blood groups
•  Describing common cardiovascular diseases and disorders
Examples: myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerois

10.) Identify structures and functions of the digestive system

•  Tracing the pathway of digestion from the mouth to the anus using diagrams
•  Identifying disorders affecting the digestive system
Examples: ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis

11.) Identify structures and functions of the respiratory system.

•  Tracing the pathway of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
•  Recognizing common disorders of the respiratory system
Examples: asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis

12.) Identify structures and functions of the reproductive system.

•  Differentiating between male and female reproductive systems
•  Recognizing stages of pregnancy and fetal development
•  Identifying disorders of the reproductive system
Examples: endometriosis, sexually transmitted diseases, prostate cancer

13.) Identify structures and functions of the urinary system

•  Tracing the filtration of blood from the kidney to the urethra
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the urinary system
Examples: kidney stones, urinary tract infections

14.) Identify the endocrine glands and their functions.

•  Describing effects of hormones produced by the endocrine glands
•  Identifying common disorders of the endocrine system
Examples: diabetes, goiter, hyperthyroidism

15.) Identify physiological effects and components of the immune system.

•  Contrasting active and passive immunity
•  Evaluating the importance of vaccines
•  Recognizing disorders and diseases of the immune system
Examples: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), acute lymphocytic leukemia

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