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Health Science, Grade 9 - 12, Introduction to Biotechnology, 2009

1.) Trace the history of biotechnology.

•  Identifying the scientific fields relevant to biotechnology
•  Describing both scientific and non-scientific careers, roles, and responsibilities of individuals working in biotechnology
2.) Exhibit appropriate safety procedure in the laboratory.

Examples: demonstrating proper use of personal protection devices, maintaining a sanitary laboratory environment, handling biological an chemical hazards properly, following laboratory protocols, maintaining proper documentation, labeling, and record keeping

3.) Explain concepts important to solution preparation.

•  Explaining the concepts of molecular mass, mole, and formula weight
•  Calculating molecular mass of specific molecules and the molarity of a solution
•  Preparing solutions of defined concentration
Examples: Preparing serial dilutions of specific solutions

•  Adjusting the pH of specific solutions with commonly used acids and bases
4.) Correlate key cellular components to function.

Examples: nucleus, chromosome, ribosome, mitochondria

5.) Describe the process of meiosis and the cell cycle, including the hereditary significance of each.

•  Comparing typical and atypical chromosome karyotypes
•  Comparing spermatogenesis and oogensis using charts
6.) Describe the significance of Mendel's work to the development of the modern science of genetics, including the laws of segregation and independent assortment.

7.) Describe the inheritance patterns based on gene interactions.

•  Predicting patterns of heredity using pedigree analysis
•  Identifying incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple allelism
8.) Describe occurrences and effects of sex linkage, autosomal linkage, crossover, multiple alleles, and polygenes.

9.) Describe the structure and function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), including replication, translation, and transcription.

•  Applying the genetic code to predict amino acid sequence
•  Describing methods cells use to regulate gene expression
•  Defining the role of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in protein synthesis
•  Performing DNA extraction and separation techniques
•  Analyzing DNA previously amplified using polymerase chain reaction
10.) Explain the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes, including transposons, introns, and exons.

11.) Describe factors such as radiation, chemicals, and chance that cause mutations.

•  Describing the effects of genetic variability on adaptations
•  Describing how DNA mutations impact both the organism and population
12.) Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg principle provides a baseline for recognizing evolutionary changes in gene frequency due to genetic drift, gene flow, nonrandom mating, mutation, and natural selection.

13.) Differentiate among major areas in modern biotechnology, including plant, animal, microbial, forensic, and marine.

Examples: hybridization, cloning, insulin production, DNA profiling, bioremediation

•  Describing techniques used with recombinant DNA
Examples: DNA sequencing, isolation of DNA segments, polymerase chain reaction

•  Demonstrate proper maintenance of bacterial cultures, including preparing growth media and culturing microorganisms
•  Demonstrating recombinant DNA techniques in bacteria, including performing a plasmid transformation and a restriction digest
14.) Explain the development, purpose, findings, and applications of the Human Genome Project.

•  Analyzing results of the Human Genome Project to predict ethical, social, and legal implications
•  Describing medical uses of gene therapy, including vaccines and tissue and antibody engineering
•  Using computer bioinformatics resources to provide information regarding DNA, protein, and human genetic diseases
Examples: National Center for Biotechnology Information, protein data bank, gene reviews

15.) Describe the replication of DNA and RNA viruses, including lytic and lysogenic cycles, using diagrams.

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