Science, Grade 9  12, Physics, 2005
1.) Explain linear, uniform circular, and projectile motions using one and twodimensional vectors.
• Explaining the significance of slope and area under a curve when graphing distancetime or velocitytime data
Example: slope and area of a velocitytime curve giving acceleration and distance traveled
• Describing forces that act on an object
Example: drawing a freebody diagram showing all forces acting on an object and resultant effects of friction, gravity, and normal force on an object sliding down an inclined plane

2.) Define the law of conservation of momentum.
• Calculating the momentum of a single object
• Calculating momenta of two objects before and after collision in onedimensional motion

3.) Explain planetary motion and navigation in space in terms of Kepler's and Newton's laws.

4.) Describe quantitative relationships for velocity, acceleration, force, work, power, potential energy, and kinetic energy.

5.) Explain the concept of entropy as it relates to heating and cooling, using the laws of thermodynamics.
• Using qualitative and quantitative methods to show the relationship between changes in heat energy and changes in temperature

6.) Describe wave behavior in terms of reflection, refraction, diffraction, constructive and destructive wave interference, and the Doppler effect.
• Explaining reasons for differences in speed, frequency, and wavelength of a propagating wave in varying materials
• Describing uses of different components of the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation,
X rays, and gamma radiation
• Demonstrating particle and wave duality
• Describing the change of wave speed in different media

7.) Describe properties of reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
Examples: tracing the path of a reflected light ray, predicting the formation of reflected images through tracing of rays
• Demonstrating the path of light through mirrors, lenses, and prisms
Example: tracing the path of a refracted light ray through prisms using Snell's law
• Describing the effect of filters and polarization on the transmission of light

8.) Summarize similarities in the calculation of electrical, magnetic, and gravitational forces between objects.
• Determining the force on charged particles using Coulomb's law

9.) Describe quantitative relationships among charge, current, electrical potential energy, potential difference, resistance, and electrical power for simple series, parallel, or combination direct current (DC) circuits.


