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Science, Grade K, 2005

1.) Classify objects as solids or liquids.

2.) Identify the sun as Earth's source of light and heat.

•  Predicting the effect of the sun on living and nonliving things
•  Identifying relationships between light and shadows
•  Predicting the occurrence of shadows
3.) Relate a variety of sounds to their sources, including weather, animal, and transportation sounds.

Examples:

- weather—thunder,

- animal—dog bark,

- transportation—truck horn

4.) Identify properties of motion, including change of position and change of speed.

5.) Predict whether an object will be attracted by a magnet.

6.) Compare size, shape, structure, and basic needs of living things.

•  Identifying similarities of offspring and their parents
7.) Classify objects using the five senses.

•  Grouping objects according to color, shape, size, sound, taste, smell, texture, and temperature
8.) Identify features of Earth as landmasses or bodies of water.

9.) Identify seasons of the year.

•  Describing seasonal changes in the weather
10.) Identify objects observed in the day sky with the unaided eye, including the sun, clouds, moon, and rainbows.


Science, Grade 1, 2005

1.) Select appropriate tools and technological resources needed to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

Examples: platform balances, hand lenses, computers, maps, graphs, journals

2.) Identify basic properties of objects.

Examples: size, shape, color, texture

3.) Describe effects of forces on objects, including change of speed, direction, and position.

4.) Describe survival traits of living things, including color, shape, size, texture, and covering.

•  Classifying plants and animals according to physical traits
Examples:

- animals—six legs on insects,

- plants—green leaves on evergreen trees

•  Identifying developmental stages of plants and animals
Examples:

- plants—seed developing into seedling, seedling developing into tree;

- animals—piglet developing into pig, kid developing into goat

•  Describing a variety of habitats and natural homes of animals
5.) Identify parts of the human body, including the head, neck, shoulders, arms, spine, and legs.

•  Recognizing the importance of a balanced diet for healthy bones
•  Discussing the relationship of muscles and bones to locomotion
•  Discussing the relationship of bones to protection of vital organs
Example: protection of brain by skull

•  Identifying technology used by scientists to study the human body
Examples: X-ray images, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

6.) Recognize evidence of animals that no longer exist.

7.) Identify components of Earth's surface, including soil, rocks, and water.

8.) Recognize daily changes in weather, including clouds, precipitation, and temperature.

•  Recognizing instruments used to observe weather
Examples: thermometer, rain gauge, wind sock, weather vane

•  Recording weather data using weather journals, charts, and maps
9.) Identify ways to conserve Earth's resources.

Example: turning off lights and water when not in use

10.) Describe uses of recycled materials.

Examples: manufacture of paper products from old newspapers, production of mulch from trees

11.) Compare the day sky to the night sky as observed with the unaided eye.


Science, Grade 2, 2005

1.) Identify states of matter as solids, liquids, and gases.

•  Describing objects according to physical properties, including hardness, color, and flexibility
•  Describing changes between states of matter
Examples:

- solid to liquid—melting,

- gas to liquid—condensing,

- liquid to gas—evaporating,

- liquid to solid—freezing

•  Measuring quantities of solids and liquids
2.) Identify vibration as the source of sound.

•  Identifying pitch and volume as properties of sound
•  Distinguishing between pitch and volume of sound
3.) Recognize that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object.

•  Recognizing that light can be reflected
4.) Describe observable effects of forces, including buoyancy, gravity, and magnetism.

Examples:

- buoyancy—boat floating on water,

- gravity—apple falling from tree,

- magnetism—magnets adhering to metal

•  Identifying simple machines, including the inclined plane, lever, pulley, wedge, screw, and wheel and axle
5.) Identify the relationship of structure to function in plants, including roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.

6.) Identify characteristics of animals, including behavior, size, and body covering

•  Comparing existing animals to extinct animals
Examples: iguana to stegosaurus, elephant to wooly mammoth

•  Identifying migration and hibernation as survival strategies
7.) Identify geological features as mountains, valleys, plains, deserts, lakes, rivers, and oceans.

•  Identifying local landforms and bodies of water
•  Identifying components of soil, including sand, clay, and silt
8.) Identify evidence of erosion and weathering of rocks.

9.) Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle.

10.) Identify the impact of weather on agriculture, recreation, the economy, and society.

•  Recognizing the importance of science and technology to weather predictions
11.) Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon.


Science, Grade 3, 2005

1.) Classify substances as soluble or insoluble.

Examples:

- soluble—sugar in water, powdered drink in water;

- insoluble—sand in water, oil in water

2.) Identify physical and chemical changes of matter.

Examples:

- physical—chopping wood,

- chemical—burning wood

3.) Describe ways energy from the sun is used.

Examples: plant growth, light, heat

•  Identifying fossil fuels as a source of energy
4.) Define force and motion.

•  Identifying forces that change an object's position or motion
Examples: lifting, pushing, pulling

•  Identifying sources of friction
Examples: rubbing hands together, applying sandpaper to wood

•  Describing the force of gravity
5.) Identify the relationship of simple machines to compound machines.

Example: pencil sharpener composed of a wheel and axle, inclined plane, and wedge

6.) Identify structures and functions of the muscular and skeletal systems of the human body.

7.) Describe the life cycle of plants, including seed, seed germination, growth, and reproduction.

•  Describing the role of plants in a food chain
•  Identifying plant and animal cells
•  Describing how plants occupy space and use light, nutrients, water, and air
•  Classifying plants according to their features
Examples: evergreen or deciduous, flowering or nonflowering

•  Identifying helpful and harmful effects of plants
Examples:

- helpful—provide food, control erosion;

- harmful—cause allergic reactions, produce poisons

•  Identifying how bees pollinate flowers
•  Identifying photosynthesis as the method used by plants to produce food
8.) Identify how organisms are classified in the Animalia and Plantae kingdoms.

9.) Describe how fossils provide evidence of prehistoric plant life.

Example: plant fossils in coal or shale providing evidence of existence of prehistoric ferns

10.) Determine habitat conditions that support plant growth and survival.

Examples: deserts support cacti, wetlands support ferns and mosses

11.) Describe Earth's layers, including inner and outer cores, mantle, and crust.

•  Classifying rocks and minerals by characteristics, including streak, color, hardness, magnetism, luster, and texture
12.) Identify conditions that result in specific weather phenomena, including thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes.

•  Identifying cloud types associated with specific weather patterns
•  Identifying positive and negative effects of weather phenomena
Examples:

- positive—flooding deposits good soil when waters recede,

- negative—flooding kills crops

•  Identifying technology used to record and predict weather, including thermometers, barometers, rain gauges, anemometers, and satellites
•  Explaining symbols shown on a weather map
•  Organizing weather data into tables or charts
13.) Describe ways to sustain natural resources, including recycling, reusing, conserving, and protecting the environment.

•  Recognizing the impact of society on human health and environmental conditions
14.) Describe the position of Earth, the moon, and the sun during the course of a day or month.

•  Describing various forms of technology used in observing Earth and its moon

Science, Grade 4, 2005

1.) Describe how electrical circuits can be used to produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic fields.

•  Identifying ways to use and conserve electrical energy
•  Identifying characteristics of parallel and series circuits
•  Classifying materials as conductors, nonconductors, and insulators of electricity and heat
•  Identifying relationships among charge, current, and potential energy
•  Identifying components of a circuit
2.) Compare different pitches of sound produced by changing the size, tension, amount, or type of vibrating material.

•  Describing the relationship between the structure of the ear and hearing
3.) Recognize how light interacts with transparent, translucent, and opaque materials.

Examples:

- transparent—most light passes through,

- translucent—some light passes through,

- opaque—no light passes through

•  Predicting the reflection or absorption of light by various objects
4.) Describe effects of friction on moving objects.

•  Identifying momentum and inertia as properties of moving objects
•  Identifying ways to increase or decrease friction
5.) Describe the interdependence of plants and animals.

•  Describing behaviors and body structures that help animals survive in particular habitats
Examples:

- behaviors—migration, hibernation, mimicry;

- body structures—quills, fangs, stingers, webbed feet

•  Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis
Examples: damsel fly, mealworms

•  Tracing the flow of energy through a food chain
Example: producer, first-level consumer, second-level consumer, and third-level consumer

•  Identifying characteristics of organisms, including growth and development, reproduction, acquisition and use of energy, and response to the environment
6.) Classify animals as vertebrates or invertebrates and as endotherms or ectotherms.

•  Describing the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and organ system
•  Describing the grouping of organisms into populations, communities, and ecosystems
•  Classifying common organisms into kingdoms, including Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Fungi, Archaebacteria, and Eubacteria
7.) Describe geological features of Earth, including bodies of water, beaches, ocean ridges, continental shelves, plateaus, faults, canyons, sand dunes, and ice caps.

8.) Identify technological advances and other benefits of space exploration.

Examples: laser, pacemaker, dehydrated food, flame-retardant clothing, global positioning system (GPS), satellite imagery, global weather information, diagnostic imagery

•  Listing highlights of space exploration, including satellites, manned moon missions, the unmanned Mars mission, and an inhabited space station
•  Identifying Alabama's contribution to the space industry
9.) Describe the appearance and movement of Earth and its moon.

•  Identifying the waxing and waning of the moon in the night sky
•  Identifying lunar and solar eclipses
10.) Describe components of our solar system.

•  Defining comets, asteroids, and meteors

Science, Grade 5, 2005

1.) Identify evidence of chemical changes through color, gas formation, solid formation, and temperature change.

Example: combining vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas

2.) Define mass, volume, and density.

•  Identifying the atom as the basic building block of matter
•  Relating temperature changes to particle motion
Example: movement of colored dye in hot and cold water

•  Relating density to the sinking or floating of an object in a liquid
3.) Use everyday indicators to identify common acids and bases.

Examples: using grape juice to determine that vinegar is an acid, using juice from boiled red cabbage to determine that baking soda is a base

4.) Describe forms of energy, including chemical, heat, light, and mechanical.

•  Identifying types of potential and kinetic energy
Examples:

- potential—water behind a dam, battery;

- kinetic—water moving across turbine blades

•  Describing alternatives to the use of fossil fuels
Examples: solar energy, geothermal energy, windmill, hydroelectric power, biomass

•  Identifying the transfer of energy by conduction, convection, and radiation
Examples:

- conduction—hot plate heating a pan,

- convection—space heater heating air,

- radiation—sun heating Earth's surface

5.) Contrast ways in which light rays are bent by concave and convex lenses.

•  Describing how a prism forms a visible spectrum
•  Explaining why different objects have different colors
•  Describing how mirrors reflect light
Example: discussing differences in the reflection of light by convex and concave mirrors

•  Describing the relationship between the structure of the eye and sight
•  Identifying types of corrective lenses used to correct different sight problems
Examples:

- convex—farsightedness,

- concave—nearsightedness

•  Identifying the contribution of van Leeuwenhoek to the development of the microscope
6.) Compare effects of gravitational force on Earth, on the moon, and within space.

•  Identifying contributions of Newton to the study of gravity
•  Describing how a spring scale is used to measure weight
•  Explaining how air resistance affects falling objects
7.) Identify common parts of plant and animal cells, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.

•  Comparing unicellular and multicellular organisms
•  Comparing plant and animal cells
8.) Identify major body systems and their functions, including the circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory system, and reproductive system.

9.) Describe the relationship of populations within a habitat to various communities and ecosystems.

•  Describing the relationship between food chains and food webs
•  Describing symbiotic relationships
10.) Identify spheres of Earth, including the geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.

•  Describing technology used to investigate Earth
Examples: sonar, radar, seismograph, weather balloons, satellites

•  Describing the rock cycle
11.) Compare distances from the sun to planets in our solar system.

•  Relating the size of Earth to the size of other planets in our solar system
•  Identifying technology used to study planets
Examples: Hubble telescope, space probes, Mars Exploration Rover


Science, Grade 6, 2005

1.) Identify global patterns of atmospheric movement, including El Niño, the Gulf Stream, the jet stream, the Coriolis effect, and global winds that influence local weather.

•  Predicting local weather and weather patterns
Examples: cold and warm fronts, high and low pressure areas

•  Describing the function of instruments and technology used to investigate Earth's weather, including barometers, thermometers, wind socks, weather vanes, satellites, radar, weather balloons, and rain gauges
•  Using lines of latitude and longitude to locate areas of specific weather events
•  Interpreting weather data through observations collected over time
Example: calculating annual precipitation and average temperature

2.) Describe factors that cause changes to Earth's surface over time.

Examples: earthquakes, volcanoes, weathering, erosion, glacial erosion or scouring, deposition, water flow, tornadoes, hurricanes, farming and conservation, mining and reclamation, deforestation and reforestation, waste disposal, global climate changes, greenhouse gases

•  Comparing constructive and destructive natural processes and their effects on land formations
Examples:

- constructive—volcanic and mountain-building processes;

- destructive—erosion by wind, water, and ice

•  Distinguishing rock strata by geologic composition
Examples: predicting relative age of strata by fossil depth, predicting occurrence of natural events by rock composition in a particular strata

3.) Describe water and carbon biogeochemical cycles and their effects on Earth.

4.) Explain the plate tectonic theory.

Example: using terminology such as continental drift, seafloor spreading, lava, magma, eruption, epicenter, focus, seismic wave, and subduction zone

•  Describing types of volcanoes and faults
•  Determining energy release through seismographic data
Example: using data from the Mercalli scale and the Richter scale

5.) Describe layers of the oceanic hydrosphere, including the pelagic zone, benthic zone, abyssal zone, and intertidal zone.

6.) Describe regions of the oceanic lithosphere, including the continental shelf, continental slope, and abyssal plain.

7.) Describe Earth's biomes.

Examples: aquatic biomes, grasslands, deserts, chaparrals, taigas, tundras

•  Identifying geographic factors that cause diversity in flora and fauna, including elevation, location, and climate
8.) Describe how Earth's rotation, Earth's axial tilt, and distance from the equator cause variations in the heating and cooling of various locations on Earth.

9.) Identify the moon's phases.

•  Describing lunar and solar eclipses
•  Relating effects of the moon's positions on oceanic tides
10.) Describe components of the universe and their relationships to each other, including stars, planets and their moons, solar systems, and galaxies.

•  Identifying the impact of space exploration on innovations in technology
Examples: MRI, microwave, satellite imagery, GPS

•  Mapping seasonal changes in locations of constellations in the night sky
•  Describing the life cycle of a star
Example: H-R diagram

11.) Describe units used to measure distance in space, including astronomical units and light years.


Science, Grade 7, 2005

1.) Describe characteristics common to living things, including growth and development, reproduction, cellular organization, use of energy, exchange of gases, and response to the environment.

•  Identifying homeostasis as the process by which an organism responds to its internal or external environment
•  Predicting how an organism's behavior impacts the environment
•  Identifying unicellular organisms, including bacteria and protists, by their methods of locomotion, reproduction, ingestion, excretion, and effects on other organisms
•  Identifying the structure of a virus
2.) Identify functions of organelles found in eukaryotic cells, including the nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and vacuoles.

Example: mitochondria releasing energy for use in cellular respiration

•  Identifying components of the cell theory
•  Identifying cells as prokaryotic or eukaryotic
•  Listing the sequence of the mitotic cell cycle
3.) Relate major tissues and organs of the skeletal, circulatory, reproductive, muscular, respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems to their functions.

•  Arranging in order the organizational levels of the human body from the cell through organ systems
4.) Describe organisms in the six-kingdom classification system by their characteristics.

•  Recognizing genus and species as components of a scientific name
•  Identifying contributions of Aristotle and Linnaeus to the early history of taxonomy
5.) Identify major differences between plants and animals, including internal structures, external structures, methods of locomotion, methods of reproduction, and stages of development.

•  Describing the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
6.) Describe evidence of species variation due to climate, changing landforms, interspecies interaction, and genetic mutation.

Examples: fossil records over geologic time, rapid bacterial mutations due to environmental pressures

7.) Describe biotic and abiotic factors in the environment.

Examples:

- biotic—plants, animals;

- abiotic—climate, water, soil

•  Classifying organisms as autotrophs or heterotrophs
•  Arranging the sequence of energy flow in an ecosystem through food webs, food chains, and energy pyramids
8.) Describe the function of chromosomes.

•  Identifying genes as parts of chromosomes that carry genetic traits
9.) Identify the process of chromosome reduction in the production of sperm and egg cells during meiosis.

10.) Identify differences between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Examples:

- DNA—double helix, contains thymine;

- RNA—single stranded, contains uracil

•  Identifying Watson and Crick as scientists who discovered the shape of the DNA molecule
11.) Identify Mendel's laws of genetics.

•  Recognizing Down's syndrome and sickle cell anemia as inherited genetic disorders
•  Using a monohybrid Punnett square to predict the probability of traits passed from parents to offspring

Science, Grade 8, 2005

1.) Identify steps within the scientific process.

•  Applying process skills to interpret data from graphs, tables, and charts
•  Identifying controls and variables in a scientific investigation
•  Measuring dimension, volume, and mass using Systéme International d'Unités (SI units)
•  Identifying examples of hypotheses
•  Identifying appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments used to conduct an investigation
2.) Describe the structure of atoms, including the location of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

•  Identifying the charge of each subatomic particle
•  Identifying Democritus and Dalton as contributors to the atomic theory
3.) Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and the mass of an element using the periodic table.

•  Locating metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and noble gases on the periodic table
•  Using data about the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom to determine its reactivity
4.) State the law of conservation of matter.

•  Balancing chemical equations by adjusting coefficients
5.) Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds.

•  Illustrating the transfer or sharing of electrons using electron dot diagrams
6.) Define solution in terms of solute and solvent.

•  Defining diffusion and osmosis
•  Defining isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions
•  Describing acids and bases based on their hydrogen ion concentration
7.) Describe states of matter based on kinetic energy of particles in matter.

•  Explaining effects of temperature, concentration, surface area, and catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions
8.) Identify Newton's three laws of motion.

•  Defining terminology such as action and reaction forces, inertia, acceleration, momentum, and friction
•  Interpreting distance-time graphs
9.) Describe how mechanical advantages of simple machines reduce the amount of force needed for work.

•  Describing the effect of force on pressure in fluids
Example: increasing force on fluid leading to increase of pressure within a hydraulic cylinder

10.) Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy.

Examples:

- potential—rock resting at the top of a hill,

- kinetic—rock rolling down a hill

11.) Explain the law of conservation of energy and its relationship to energy transformation, including chemical to electrical, chemical to heat, electrical to light, electrical to mechanical, and electrical to sound.

12.) Classify waves as mechanical or electromagnetic.

Examples:

- mechanical—earthquake waves;

- electromagnetic—ultraviolet light waves, visible light waves

•  Describing how earthquake waves, sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves can be destructive or beneficial due to the transfer of energy
•  Describing longitudinal and transverse waves
•  Describing how waves travel through different media
•  Relating wavelength, frequency, and amplitude to energy
•  Describing the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequencies
Example: electromagnetic spectrum in increasing frequencies—microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X rays


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Anatomy and Physiology Elective, 2005

1.) Use appropriate anatomical terminology.

Examples: proximal, superficial, medial, supine, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior

2.) Identify anatomical body planes, body cavities, and abdominopelvic regions of the human body.

3.) Classify major types of cells, including squamous, cuboidal, columnar, simple, and stratified.

4.) Classify tissues as connective, muscular, nervous, or epithelial.

5.) Identify anatomical structures and functions of the integumentary system.

•  Identifying accessory organs
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the integumentary system
Examples: decubitus ulcer, melanoma, psoriasis

6.) Identify bones that compose the skeletal system.

•  Identifying functions of the skeletal system
•  Identifying subdivisions of the skeleton as axial and appendicular skeletons
•  Classifying types of joints according to their movement
•  Identifying the four bone types
•  Identifying various types of skeletal system disorders
Examples: fractures, arthritis

7.) Identify major muscles, including origins, insertions, and actions.

•  Describing common types of body movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
•  Classifying muscles based on functions in the body, including prime movers, antagonists, synergists, and fixators
•  Comparing skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles based on their microscopic anatomy
•  Identifying diseases and disorders of the muscular system
Examples: muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strain

8.) Identify structures of the nervous system.

•  Explaining differences in the function of the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system
•  Labeling parts of sensory organs, including the eye, ear, tongue, and skin receptors
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the nervous system
Examples: Parkinson's disease, meningitis

9.) Identify structures and functions of the cardiovascular system.

•  Tracing the flow of blood through the body
•  Identifying components of blood
•  Describing blood cell formation
•  Distinguishing among human blood groups
•  Describing common cardiovascular diseases and disorders
Examples: myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis

10.) Identify structures and functions of the digestive system.

•  Tracing the pathway of digestion from the mouth to the anus using diagrams
•  Identifying disorders affecting the digestive system
Examples: ulcers, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis

11.) Identify structures and functions of the respiratory system.

•  Tracing the pathway of the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
•  Recognizing common disorders of the respiratory system
Examples: asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis

12.) Identify structures and functions of the reproductive system.

•  Differentiating between male and female reproductive systems
•  Recognizing stages of pregnancy and fetal development
•  Identifying disorders of the reproductive system
Examples: endometriosis, sexually transmitted diseases, prostate cancer

13.) Identify structures and functions of the urinary system.

•  Tracing the filtration of blood from the kidneys to the urethra
•  Recognizing diseases and disorders of the urinary system
Examples: kidney stones, urinary tract infections

14.) Identify the endocrine glands and their functions.

•  Describing effects of hormones produced by the endocrine glands
•  Identifying common disorders of the endocrine system
Examples: diabetes, goiter, hyperthyroidism

15.) Identify physiological effects and components of the immune system.

•  Contrasting active and passive immunity
•  Evaluating the importance of vaccines
•  Recognizing disorders and diseases of the immune system
Examples: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), acute lymphocytic leukemia


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Aquascience Elective, 2005

1.) Differentiate among freshwater, brackish water, and saltwater ecosystems.

•  Identifying chemical, geological, and physical features of aquatic ecosystems
2.) Relate geological and hydrological phenomena and fluid dynamics to aquatic systems.

3.) Explain the importance of biogeochemical cycles in an aquatic environment.

4.) Determine important properties and content of water as related to aquaculture.

Examples: turbidity, pH, pollutants, dissolved oxygen, high specific heat, density, temperature

•  Describing the influence of water quality on aquaculture
Examples: aquatic plant control, water quality management, recognition and correction of oxygen deficiency, pH control

•  Identifying sources of aquatic pollution
Examples: point and nonpoint pollution, volcanic ash, waste disposal

•  Describing methods of reclaiming waste water and polluted water
Examples: settling ponds; hydroponics; irrigation water; chemical additives; mechanical, biological, and chemical filtering systems

5.) Identify the genotype and phenotype for specific characteristics in aquatic animals resulting from selective breeding.

Examples: disease-resistant fish, rapid maturation rates

•  Explaining the importance of anatomy and physiology in aquaculture
Examples: body systems, internal and external anatomy of a fish, basic structure of an oyster

6.) Describe adaptations that allow organisms to exist in specific aquatic environments.

7.) Describe processes and environmental characteristics that affect growth rates of aquatic animals.

Examples: reproductive habits, feeding habits, interdependence of organisms, overcrowding, seasonal changes

8.) Determine effects of the fishing industry on the aquatic environment.

Examples: aquaculture, overfishing

•  Describing basic principles involved in fish production
•  Explaining various methods of pond preparation, predator control, and species management
•  Explaining harvesting techniques and methods of transporting fish to market
9.) Describe various structures and equipment used in growing aquacrops.

Examples: open ponds, cages, raceways, tanks, silos

•  Determining the suitability of habitat construction for aquaculture
•  Identifying biological concerns in a recirculating or closed system
10.) Describe the control of disease and pests in aquatic environments.

Examples: pathogenic microspecies, parasites, predators, trash fish


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Biology, 2005

1.) Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an experiment.

•  Describing the steps of the scientific method
•  Comparing controls, dependent variables, and independent variables
•  Identifying safe laboratory procedures when handling chemicals and using Bunsen burners and laboratory glassware
•  Using appropriate SI units for measuring length, volume, and mass
2.) Describe cell processes necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis.

•  Identifying functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in cellular activities
•  Comparing the reaction of plant and animal cells in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions
•  Explaining how surface area, cell size, temperature, light, and pH affect cellular activities
•  Applying the concept of fluid pressure to biological systems
Examples: blood pressure, turgor pressure, bends, strokes

3.) Identify reactants and products associated with photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the purposes of these two processes.

4.) Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

•  Identifying scientists who contributed to the cell theory
Examples: Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, van Leeuwenhoek

•  Distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
•  Identifying various technologies used to observe cells
Examples: light microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope

5.) Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere.

•  Recognizing that cells differentiate to perform specific functions
Examples: ciliated cells to produce movement, nerve cells to conduct electrical charges

6.) Describe the roles of mitotic and meiotic divisions during reproduction, growth, and repair of cells.

•  Comparing sperm and egg formation in terms of ploidy
Example: ploidy—haploid, diploid

•  Comparing sexual and asexual reproduction
7.) Apply Mendel's law to determine phenotypic and genotypic probabilities of offspring.

•  Defining important genetic terms, including dihybrid cross, monohybrid cross, phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant trait, recessive trait, incomplete dominance, codominance, and allele
•  Interpreting inheritance patterns shown in graphs and charts
•  Calculating genotypic and phenotypic percentages and ratios using a Punnett square
8.) Identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and protein.

•  Explaining relationships among DNA, genes, and chromosomes
•  Listing significant contributions of biotechnology to society, including agricultural and medical practices
Examples: DNA fingerprinting, insulin, growth hormone

•  Relating normal patterns of genetic inheritance to genetic variation
Example: crossing-over

•  Relating ways chance, mutagens, and genetic engineering increase diversity
Examples: insertion, deletion, translocation, inversion, recombinant DNA

•  Relating genetic disorders and disease to patterns of genetic inheritance
Examples: hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, Down's syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, color blindness, phenylketonuria (PKU)

9.) Differentiate between the previous five-kingdom and current six-kingdom classification systems.

•  Sequencing taxa from most inclusive to least inclusive in the classification of living things
•  Identifying organisms using a dichotomous key
•  Identifying ways in which organisms from the Monera, Protista, and Fungi kingdoms are beneficial and harmful
Examples:

- beneficial—decomposers,

- harmful—diseases

•  Justifying the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things
•  Writing scientific names accurately by using binomial nomenclature
10.) Distinguish between monocots and dicots, angiosperms and gymnosperms, and vascular and nonvascular plants.

•  Describing the histology of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers
•  Recognizing chemical and physical adaptations of plants
Examples:

- chemical—foul odor, bitter taste, toxicity;

- physical—spines, needles, broad leaves

11.) Classify animals according to type of skeletal structure, method of fertilization and reproduction, body symmetry, body coverings, and locomotion.

Examples:

- skeletal structure—vertebrates, invertebrates;

- fertilization—external, internal;

- reproduction—sexual, asexual;

- body symmetry—bilateral, radial, asymmetrical;

- body coverings—feathers, scales, fur;

- locomotion—cilia, flagella, pseudopodia

12.) Describe protective adaptations of animals, including mimicry, camouflage, beak type, migration, and hibernation.

•  Identifying ways in which the theory of evolution explains the nature and diversity of organisms
•  Describing natural selection, survival of the fittest, geographic isolation, and fossil record
13.) Trace the flow of energy as it decreases through the trophic levels from producers to the quaternary level in food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

•  Describing the interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Examples: effects of humidity on stomata size, effects of dissolved oxygen on fish respiration

•  Contrasting autotrophs and heterotrophs
•  Describing the niche of decomposers
•  Using the ten percent law to explain the decreasing availability of energy through the trophic levels
14.) Trace biogeochemical cycles through the environment, including water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.

•  Relating natural disasters, climate changes, nonnative species, and human activity to the dynamic equilibrium of ecosystems
Examples:

- natural disasters—habitat destruction resulting from tornadoes;

- climate changes—changes in migratory patterns of birds;

- nonnative species—exponential growth of kudzu and Zebra mussels due to absence of natural controls;

- human activity—habitat destruction resulting in reduction of biodiversity, conservation resulting in preservation of biodiversity

•  Describing the process of ecological succession
15.) Identify biomes based on environmental factors and native organisms.

Example: tundra—permafrost, low humidity, lichens, polar bears

16.) Identify density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors that affect populations in an ecosystem.

Examples:

- density-dependent—disease, predator-prey relationships, availability of food and water;

- density-independent—natural disasters, climate

•  Discriminating among symbiotic relationships, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

Science, Grade 9 - 12, Botany Elective, 2005

1.) Identify the twelve plant kingdom divisions.

•  Classifying native Alabama plants using dichotomous keys
2.) Describe phylogenetic relationships between plants and other organisms.

•  Classifying plants as vascular or nonvascular
•  Classifying seed-bearing and spore-bearing plants
•  Classifying plants as gymnosperms or angiosperms
•  Contrasting monocots and dicots
•  Describing mutualism among algae and fungi in lichens
3.) List plant adaptations required for life on land.

•  Describing the alternation of generations in plants
•  Comparing characteristics of algae and plants
4.) Identify major types of plant tissues found in roots, stems, and leaves.

Examples: parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma

5.) Identify types of roots, stems, and leaves.

Examples:

- roots—tap, fibrous;

- stems—herbaceous, woody;

- leaves—simple, compound

6.) Explain the importance of soil type, texture, and nutrients to plant growth.

•  Describing water and mineral absorption in plants
•  Analyzing the roles of capillarity and turgor pressure
7.) Explain plant cell processes, including light dependent and light independent reactions of photosynthesis, glycolysis, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and transport.

8.) Describe plant responses to various stimuli.

•  Identifying effects of hormones on plant growth
Examples: gibberellin, cytokinin, auxin

•  Differentiating among phototropism, gravitropism, and thigmotropism
9.) Identify life cycles of mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.

10.) Describe the structure and function of flower parts.

•  Describing seed germination, development, and dispersal
11.) Describe various natural and artificial methods of vegetative propagation.

Examples:

- natural—stem runners, rhizomes, bulbs, tubers;

- artificial—cutting, grafting, layering

12.) Describe the ecological and economic importance of plants.

Examples:

- ecological—algae-producing oxygen, bioremediation, soil preservation;

- economic—food, medication, timber, fossil fuels, clothing

•  Analyzing effects of human activity on the plant world
13.) Identify viral, fungal, and bacterial plant diseases and their effects.

Examples:

- viral—tobacco mosaic, Rembrandt tulips;

- fungal—mildew, rust;

- bacterial—black rot


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Chemistry, 2005

1.) Differentiate among pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds.

•  Distinguishing between intensive and extensive properties of matter
•  Contrasting properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
•  Distinguishing between homogeneous and heterogeneous forms of matter
2.) Describe the structure of carbon chains, branched chains, and rings.

3.) Use the periodic table to identify periodic trends, including atomic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity, and energy levels.

•  Utilizing electron configurations, Lewis dot structures, and orbital notations to write chemical formulas
•  Calculating the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an isotope
•  Utilizing benchmark discoveries to describe the historical development of atomic structure, including photoelectric effect, absorption, and emission spectra of elements
Example: Thompson's cathode ray, Rutherford's gold foil, Millikan's oil drop, and Bohr's bright line spectra experiments

4.) Describe solubility in terms of energy changes associated with the solution process.

•  Using solubility curves to interpret saturation levels
•  Explaining the conductivity of electrolytic solutions
•  Describing acids and bases in terms of strength, concentration, pH, and neutralization reactions
•  Describing factors that affect the rate of solution
•  Solving problems involving molarity, including solution preparation and dilution
5.) Use the kinetic theory to explain states of matter, phase changes, solubility, and chemical reactions.

Example: water at 25 degrees Celsius remains in the liquid state because of the strong attraction between water molecules while kinetic energy allows the sliding of molecules past one another

6.) Solve stoichiometric problems involving relationships among the number of particles, moles, and masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

•  Predicting ionic and covalent bond types and products given known reactants
•  Assigning oxidation numbers for individual atoms of monatomic and polyatomic ions
•  Identifying the nomenclature of ionic compounds, binary compounds, and acids
•  Classifying chemical reactions as composition, decomposition, single replacement, or double replacement
•  Determining the empirical or molecular formula for a compound using percent composition data
7.) Explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles using Charles's law, Boyle's law, Gay-Lussac's law, the combined gas law, and the ideal gas law.

8.) Distinguish among endothermic and exothermic physical and chemical changes.

Examples:

- endothermic physical—phase change from ice to water,

- endothermic chemical—reaction between citric acid solution and baking soda,

- exothermic physical—phase change from water vapor to water,

- exothermic chemical—formation of water from combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

•  Calculating temperature change by using specific heat
•  Using Le Châtelier's principle to explain changes in physical and chemical equilibrium
9.) Distinguish between chemical and nuclear reactions.

•  Identifying atomic and subatomic particles, including mesons, quarks, tachyons, and baryons
•  Calculating the half-life of selective radioactive isotopes
•  Identifying types of radiation and their properties
•  Contrasting fission and fusion
•  Describing carbon-14 decay as a dating method

Science, Grade 9 - 12, Earth and Space Elective, 2005

1.) Describe sources of energy, including solar, gravitational, geothermal, and nuclear.

2.) Describe effects on weather of energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.

•  Describing the energy transfer related to condensation in clouds, precipitation, winds, and ocean currents
•  Describing characteristics of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena
•  Using data to analyze global weather patterns
Examples: temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction

3.) Explain how weather patterns affect climate.

•  Explaining characteristics of various weather systems, including high and low pressure areas or fronts
•  Interpreting weather maps and symbols to predict changing weather conditions
•  Identifying technologies used to obtain meteorological data
4.) Describe the production and transfer of stellar energies.

•  Describing the relationship between life cycles and nuclear reactions of stars
•  Describing how the reception of solar radiation is affected by atmospheric and lithospheric conditions
Example: volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases affecting reflection and absorption of solar radiation

5.) Discuss various theories for the origin, formation, and changing nature of the universe and our solar system.

•  Explaining the nebular hypothesis for formation of planets, the big bang theory, and the steady state theory
•  Relating Hubble's law to the concept of an ever-expanding universe
•  Describing the impact of meteor, asteroid, and comet bombardment on planetary and lunar development
6.) Explain the length of a day and of a year in terms of the motion of Earth.

•  Explaining the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis and its revolution about the sun
7.) Explain techniques for determining the age and composition of Earth and the universe.

•  Using radiometric age methods to compute the age of Earth
•  Using expanding universe measurements to determine the age of the universe
•  Identifying techniques for evaluating the composition of objects in space
8.) Explain the terms astronomical unit and light year.

9.) Relate the life cycle of stars to the H-R diagram.

•  Explaining indicators of motion by the stars and sun in terms of the Doppler effect and red and blue shifts
•  Describing the relationship of star color, brightness, and evolution to the balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion
10.) Identify scientists and their findings relative to Earth and space, including Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein.

•  Identifying classical instruments used to extend the senses and increase knowledge of the universe, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, spectroscopes, and cameras
11.) Describe pulsars, quasars, black holes, and galaxies.

12.) Describe challenges and required technologies for space exploration.

•  Identifying long-term human space travel needs, including life support
•  Identifying applications of propulsion technologies for space travel
•  Identifying new instrumentation and communication technologies needed for space information gathering
Examples: Mars Exploration Rover, Cassini spacecraft and Huygens probe, Gravity Probe B

•  Identifying benefits to the quality of life that have been achieved through space advances
Examples: cellular telephone, GPS

•  Identifying new technology used to gather information, including spacecraft, observatories, space-based telescopes, and probes

Science, Grade 9 - 12, Environmental Elective, 2005

1.) Identify the influence of human population, technology, and cultural and industrial changes on the environment.

•  Describing the relationship between carrying capacity and population size
2.) Evaluate various fossil fuels for their effectiveness as energy resources.

•  Describing the formation and use of nonrenewable fossil fuels
•  Identifying by-products of the combustion of fossil fuels, including particulates, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon dioxide
•  Identifying chemical equations associated with the combustion of fossil fuels
•  Describing benefits of abundant, affordable energy to mankind
•  Identifying effects of fossil fuel by-products on the environment, including ozone depletion; formation of acid rain, brown haze, and greenhouse gases; and concentration of particulates and heavy metals
3.) Evaluate other sources of energy for their effectiveness as alternatives to fossil fuels.

•  Comparing nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions in the production of energy
•  Comparing energy production and waste output in generating nuclear energy
•  Differentiating between renewable and nonrenewable energy resources
•  Identifying local energy sources
Examples: landfill gas, wind, water, sun

•  Identifying ways the law of conservation of energy relates to fuel consumption
Examples: development of hybrid cars, construction of energy-efficient homes

4.) Identify the impact of pollutants on the atmosphere.

•  Identifying layers of the atmosphere and the composition of air
•  Describing the formation of primary, secondary, and indoor air pollutants
•  Relating pollutants to smog and thermal inversions
•  Investigating the impact of air quality on the environment
•  Interpreting social, political, and economic influences on air quality
5.) Describe properties of water that make it a universal solvent.

6.) Identify sources of local drinking water.

•  Determining the quality of fresh water using chemical testing and bioassessment
•  Describing the use of chemicals and microorganisms in water treatment
•  Describing water conservation methods
•  Describing the process of underground water accumulation, including the formation of aquifers
•  Identifying major residential, industrial, and agricultural water consumers
•  Identifying principal uses of water
7.) Identify reasons coastal waters serve as an important resource.

Examples: economic stability, biodiversity, recreation

•  Classifying biota of estuaries, marshes, tidal pools, wetlands, beaches, and inlets
•  Comparing components of marine water to components of inland bodies of water
8.) Identify major contaminants in water resulting from natural phenomena, homes, industry, and agriculture.

•  Describing the eutrophication of water by industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs
•  Classifying sources of water pollution as point and nonpoint
9.) Describe land-use practices that promote sustainability and economic growth.

Examples: no-till planting, crop rotation

•  Defining various types and sources of waste and their impact on the soil
Examples:

- types—biodegradeable, nonbiodegradeable, organic, radioactive, nonradioactive;

- sources—pesticides, herbicides

•  Identifying ways to manage waste, including composting, recycling, reusing, and reclaiming
10.) Describe the composition of soil profiles and soil samples of varying climates.

•  Identifying various processes and activities that promote soil formation
Examples: weathering, decomposition, deposition

•  Relating particle size to soil texture and type of sand, silt, or clay
11.) Describe agents of erosion, including moving water, gravity, glaciers, and wind.

•  Describing methods for preventing soil erosion
Examples: planting vegetation, constructing terraces, providing barriers

12.) Identify positive and negative effects of human activities on biodiversity.

•  Identifying endangered and extinct species locally, regionally, and worldwide
•  Identifying causes for species extinction locally, regionally, and worldwide

Science, Grade 9 - 12, Forensic Science Elective, 2005

1.) Describe responsibilities of various personnel involved in crime scene investigations.

Examples: police, detectives, laboratory specialists, medical examiners

•  Explaining how to search, sketch, and record data from a crime scene
2.) Explain ways to collect and preserve evidence from a crime scene.

•  Distinguishing between physical evidence and witness evidence
•  Comparing the three main pattern types that combine to form an individual's unique fingerprint
•  Explaining different methods of latent fingerprint development
•  Identifying origins of impressions, including footwear and tire treads
•  Describing ways to identify hair, fiber, and blood evidence
3.) Distinguish between class and individual characteristics of firearms.

Examples: toolmark, caliber, scatter pattern

4.) Describe presumptive and confirmatory tests.

Examples: blood type comparison, DNA testing

5.) Describe the importance of genetic information to forensics.

•  Using the process of gel electrophoresis to identify patterns in DNA
6.) Describe the decomposition process.

•  Using rigor mortis to determine corpse position
•  Identifying decomposition by-products to determine cause of death
•  Using entomological life cycles to determine time of death
7.) Identify the importance of skeletal remains in forensics.

•  Comparing bones and skulls based on age, sex, and race
•  Using forensic dentistry to establish identity
8.) Describe general categories of drugs and poisons and their effects on humans.

•  Explaining ways poisons are detected at autopsy
9.) Use laws of physics to explain forensic evidence.

•  Analyzing blood splatter patterns in relation to speed, height, and direction
•  Tracking trajectories of collected evidence
10.) Describe techniques used to determine the validity of documents.

Examples: fiber and handwriting analyses, ink chromatography


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Geology Elective, 2005

1.) Describe Earth's layers, including the lithosphere, asthenosphere, outer core, and inner core.

•  Identifying methods for determining the composition of Earth's lithosphere
Example: collection and analysis of rocks and minerals

•  Describing the composition of Earth's lithosphere
Example: granitic and basaltic rocks

•  Relating the types of lithosphere to tectonic plates
Examples: granitic lithosphere with continental plates, basaltic lithosphere with oceanic plates

•  Comparing the temperature, density, and composition of Earth's crust to that of the mantle and outer and inner cores
2.) Relate the concept of equilibrium to geological processes, including plate tectonics and stream flow.

Examples: stream channel on a slope, movement of tectonic plates, convection within Earth

3.) Explain natural phenomena that shape the surface of Earth, including rock cycles, plate motions and interactions, erosion and deposition, volcanism, earthquakes, weathering, and tides.

4.) Describe the topography of the sea floor and the continents.

•  Describing the formation of continental shelves
•  Explaining changes of continental topography caused by erosion and uplift
Example: formation of southern Appalachian Mountains in Alabama

5.) Classify rocks as sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.

•  Identifying characteristics of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
•  Describing mineral composition and chemical elements of rocks
•  Describing characteristics of clastic, organic, and chemical sedimentary rocks
•  Explaining texture and composition of rocks
6.) Explain the concept of geological time within the framework of the geologic time scale.

•  Describing how sedimentary rocks provide a record of evolutionary change
•  Describing the role of fossils in determining the age of strata
•  Identifying geological time scales, including eon, era, period, and epoch
•  Identifying relative and absolute dating methods
7.) Describe processes of rock formation.

Examples: cooling, deposition

•  Explaining factors that control texture and composition of rocks
Examples: formation depth, formation size, chemical composition

•  Describing processes of fossil formation
8.) Explain interactions among topography, climate, organic activity, time, and parent material through which soils are created.

9.) Describe the movement and storage of water in terms of watersheds, rainfall, surface runoff, aquifers, and surface water reservoirs.

•  Identifying major regional and national watersheds
10.) Explain the mechanism of plate tectonics.

•  Explaining processes that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
•  Identifying Earth's main tectonic plates
•  Describing faults and folds and their relationships to tectonic forces
•  Describing technologies used to measure and forecast earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
11.) Identify mass movements, including topples, slides, spreads, and flows.

12.) Identify natural subsurface openings, including lava tubes, solution cavities, and caves.

•  Explaining the process that leads to sinkholes in karst development
13.) Describe the formation and characteristics of river systems.

•  Explaining the formation of alluvial fans
•  Identifying natural events and man-made structures that affect rivers
Examples:

- natural events—weather, construction of dams by beavers;

- man-made structures—levees, dams

14.) Explain the interaction of the continuous processes of waves, tides, and winds with the coastal environment.

•  Identifying the impact of periodic weather phenomena on coastal regions
Examples: hurricanes destroying sand dunes, El Niño or La Niña redefining shorelines

•  Identifying the positive and negative impact of humans on coastal regions
Examples:

- positive—shoreline protection,

- negative—buildings replacing protective dunes and barriers

15.) Identify geological regions in Alabama and the southeastern United States.

•  Identifying geological ages of Alabama rocks
•  Describing characteristics of geological regions within Alabama
•  Identifying earthquake zones in Alabama
•  Identifying types of rocks in Alabama
•  Identifying areas of Alabama that have sinkholes and caves
•  Identifying varying seasonal rainfall patterns throughout Alabama

Science, Grade 9 - 12, Genetics Elective, 2005

1.) Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg principle provides a baseline for recognizing evolutionary changes in gene frequency due to genetic drift, gene flow, nonrandom mating, mutation, and natural selection.

2.) Describe factors such as radiation, chemicals, and chance that cause mutations in populations.

•  Describing effects of genetic variability on adaptations
3.) Describe the significance of Mendel's work to the development of the modern science of genetics, including the laws of segregation and independent assortment.

4.) Describe the process of meiosis and the cell cycle, including the hereditary significance of each.

•  Comparing spermatogenesis and oogenesis using charts
5.) Describe inheritance patterns based on gene interactions.

•  Predicting patterns of heredity using pedigree analysis
•  Identifying incomplete dominance, codominance, and multiple allelism
6.) Describe occurrences and effects of sex linkage, autosomal linkage, crossover, multiple alleles, and polygenes.

7.) Describe the structure and function of DNA, including replication, translation, and transcription.

•  Applying the genetic code to predict amino acid sequence
•  Describing methods cells use to regulate gene expression
•  Defining the role of RNA in protein synthesis
8.) Explain the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes, including transposons, introns, and exons.

9.) Differentiate among major areas in modern biotechnology, including plant, animal, microbial, forensic, and marine.

Examples: hybridization, cloning, insulin production, DNA profiling, bioremediation

•  Describing techniques used with recombinant DNA
Examples: DNA sequencing, isolation of DNA segments, polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis

10.) Explain the development and purpose of the Human Genome Project.

•  Analyzing results of the Human Genome Project to predict ethical, social, and legal implications
•  Describing medical uses of gene therapy, including vaccines and tissue and antibody engineering
11.) Describe the replication of DNA and RNA viruses, including lytic and lysogenic cycles, using diagrams.


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Marine Biology Elective, 2005

1.) Select appropriate equipment for scientific field investigations in marine environments.

•  Identifying patterns and relationships determined from collected data
•  Solving for unknown quantities by manipulating variables
2.) Differentiate among freshwater, brackish water, and saltwater.

3.) Describe physical characteristics of oceans, including topography of the ocean floor, plate tectonics, wave motion, depth, and pressure.

4.) Recognize interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean.

•  Describing how waves, ocean currents, and tides are generated
5.) Discuss physical and chemical properties of saltwater.

Examples:

- physical—turbidity, temperature, density;

- chemical—salinity, pH, dissolved gases

6.) Describe components of major marine ecosystems, including estuaries, coral reefs, benthic communities, and open-ocean communities.

7.) Identify patterns and interrelationships among producers, consumers, scavengers, and decomposers in a marine ecosystem.

8.) Describe characteristics of marine plant and algae divisions.

•  Describing commercial, economical, and medicinal values of marine plants and algae
9.) Arrange various forms of marine life from most simple to most complex.

•  Classifying marine organisms using binomial nomenclature
•  Identifying characteristics of ocean-drifting organisms
Examples: phytoplankton, zooplankton

•  Identifying characteristics of marine invertebrates
Examples: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Arthropoda

•  Identifying characteristics of marine vertebrates
Examples: fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals

•  Identifying characteristics of marine plants
Examples: algae, seaweed

•  Describing adaptations in the marine environment
10.) Describe the anatomy and physiology of representative aquatic organisms.

•  Identifying different aquatic species using dichotomous keys
11.) Describe positive and negative effects of human influence on marine environments.

Examples:

- positive—reef restoration, protection of endangered species;

- negative—pollution, overfishing

12.) Identify various careers related to marine science.


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Physical Science, 2005

1.) Recognize periodic trends of elements, including the number of valence electrons, atomic size, and reactivity.

•  Categorizing elements as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and noble gases
•  Differentiating between families and periods
•  Using atomic number and mass number to identify isotopes
2.) Identify solutions in terms of components, solubility, concentration, and conductivity.

•  Comparing saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions
•  Comparing characteristics of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
•  Describing factors that affect solubility and rate of solution, including nature of solute and solvent, temperature, agitation, surface area, and pressure on gases
3.) Contrast the formation of ionic and covalent bonds based on the transfer or sharing of valence electrons.

•  Demonstrating the formation of positive and negative monatomic ions by using electron dot diagrams
4.) Use nomenclature and chemical formulas to write balanced chemical equations.

•  Explaining the law of conservation of matter
•  Identifying chemical reactions as composition, decomposition, single replacement, or double replacement
•  Defining the role of electrons in chemical reactions
5.) Describe physical and chemical changes in terms of endothermic and exothermic processes.

6.) Identify characteristics of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear forces.

7.) Relate velocity, acceleration, and kinetic energy to mass, distance, force, and time.

•  Interpreting graphic representations of velocity versus time and distance versus time
•  Solving problems for velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power
•  Describing action and reaction forces, inertia, acceleration, momentum, and friction in terms of Newton's three laws of motion
•  Determining the resultant of collinear forces acting on a body
Example: solving problems involving the effect of a tailwind or headwind on an airplane

•  Solving problems for efficiency and mechanical advantage of simple machines
8.) Relate the law of conservation of energy to transformations of potential energy, kinetic energy, and thermal energy.

•  Identifying the relationship between thermal energy and the temperature of a sample of matter
•  Describing the flow of thermal energy between two samples of matter
•  Explaining how thermal energy is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection
•  Relating simple formulas to the calculation of potential energy, kinetic energy, and work
9.) Compare methods of energy transfer by mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

•  Distinguishing between transverse and longitudinal mechanical waves
•  Relating physical properties of sound and light to wave characteristics
Examples: loudness to amplitude, pitch to frequency, color to wavelength and frequency

10.) Explain the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

Example: using a moving charge to create a magnetic field and using a moving magnetic field to induce a current in a closed wire loop

•  Differentiating between induction and conduction
•  Identifying mechanical, magnetic, and chemical methods used to create an electrical charge
Examples:

- mechanical—rubbing materials together,

- magnetic—moving a closed loop of wire across a magnetic field,

- chemical—using batteries

•  Describing electrical circuits in terms of Ohm's law
11.) Describe the nuclear composition of unstable isotopes and the resulting changes to their nuclear composition.

•  Identifying types of nuclear emissions, including alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma radiation
•  Differentiating between fission and fusion
•  Identifying uses and possible negative side effects of nuclear technology
Examples:

- uses—nuclear power generation, medical applications, space travel;

- negative effects—radioactive contamination, nuclear fuel waste and waste storage

12.) Identify metric units for mass, distance, time, temperature, velocity, acceleration, density, force, energy, and power.


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Physics, 2005

1.) Explain linear, uniform circular, and projectile motions using one- and two-dimensional vectors.

•  Explaining the significance of slope and area under a curve when graphing distance-time or velocity-time data
Example: slope and area of a velocity-time curve giving acceleration and distance traveled

•  Describing forces that act on an object
Example: drawing a free-body diagram showing all forces acting on an object and resultant effects of friction, gravity, and normal force on an object sliding down an inclined plane

2.) Define the law of conservation of momentum.

•  Calculating the momentum of a single object
•  Calculating momenta of two objects before and after collision in one-dimensional motion
3.) Explain planetary motion and navigation in space in terms of Kepler's and Newton's laws.

4.) Describe quantitative relationships for velocity, acceleration, force, work, power, potential energy, and kinetic energy.

5.) Explain the concept of entropy as it relates to heating and cooling, using the laws of thermodynamics.

•  Using qualitative and quantitative methods to show the relationship between changes in heat energy and changes in temperature
6.) Describe wave behavior in terms of reflection, refraction, diffraction, constructive and destructive wave interference, and the Doppler effect.

•  Explaining reasons for differences in speed, frequency, and wavelength of a propagating wave in varying materials
•  Describing uses of different components of the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and gamma radiation
•  Demonstrating particle and wave duality
•  Describing the change of wave speed in different media
7.) Describe properties of reflection, refraction, and diffraction.

Examples: tracing the path of a reflected light ray, predicting the formation of reflected images through tracing of rays

•  Demonstrating the path of light through mirrors, lenses, and prisms
Example: tracing the path of a refracted light ray through prisms using Snell's law

•  Describing the effect of filters and polarization on the transmission of light
8.) Summarize similarities in the calculation of electrical, magnetic, and gravitational forces between objects.

•  Determining the force on charged particles using Coulomb's law
9.) Describe quantitative relationships among charge, current, electrical potential energy, potential difference, resistance, and electrical power for simple series, parallel, or combination direct current (DC) circuits.


Science, Grade 9 - 12, Zoology Elective, 2005

1.) Define basic anatomical terminology associated with the study of animals.

Examples: dorsal, superior, plantar, caudal, aboral

2.) Distinguish among the acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate body plans.

3.) Identify the body symmetry of animals as radial, bilateral, or asymmetrical.

4.) Use taxonomic groupings to differentiate the structure and physiology of invertebrates with dichotomous keys.

•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Porifera
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Cnidaria
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Mollusca
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of worms, including Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
•  Identifying examples, characteristics, and life cycles of Arthropoda
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Echinodermata
5.) Use taxonomic groupings to differentiate structure and physiology of vertebrates with dichotomous keys.

•  Identifying examples and characteristics of the three classes of fish
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Amphibia
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Reptilia
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Aves
•  Identifying examples and characteristics of Mammalia
6.) Identify factors used to distinguish species, including behavioral differences and reproductive isolation.

7.) Explain how species adapt to changing environments to enhance survival and reproductive success, including changes in structure, behavior, or physiology.

Examples: aestivation, thicker fur, diurnal activity

8.) Differentiate among organisms that are threatened, endangered, and extinct.

Examples:

- threatened—bald eagle,

- endangered—California condor,

- extinct—dodo

•  Identifying causative factors of decreasing population size
Examples: overcrowding resulting in greater incidence of disease, fire destroying habitat and food sources

9.) Analyze a field study of animal behavior patterns to determine the relationship of these patterns to an animal's niche.

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