Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Grade 9 - 12, Engineering Systems, 20091.) Describe applications for fluid systems and their components. Examples: valves, cylinders, pressure regulators, orifices, pipes and tubing, filters 2.) Demonstrate basic scientific principles and laws of fluid systems including Bernoulli's principle, Pascal's law, and Boyle's law. Examples: Bernoulli's principle—practical applications of airfoil design - Pascal's law—sources of resistance and change of velocity for changing pipe types and diameters - Boyle's law—reasons for pop-off valves in pneumatic systems 3.) Categorize thermal transfer in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation. Examples: heating and cooling a house, cooking, interrupting of current by a circuit breaker 4.) Explain control components and properties of materials used in thermal systems. Examples: control components—thermostats, sensors, valves - properties of materials—resistance value (R-value) of attic insulation 5.) Explain electrical theory at the atomic level, including sources of electromotive force. 6.) Compare relationships between alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) systems. •  Demonstrating the use of instruments to measure resistance, voltage, and current in AC and DC circuits •  Describing the operation of typical AC and DC system components •  Calculating voltage, current, resistance, and power in AC and DC circuits 7.) Propose solutions to given electrical systems problem statements utilizing fundamental digital electronics, including logic gates, Boolean logic, flip-flops, and other digital components. 8.) Select electrical components for a given application including, but not limited to, temperature control, identification of presence and position of objects, motor control, and speed control. 9.) Describe devices used to transfer, convert, change direction, transmit mechanical energy, and overcome friction. 10.) Describe primary characteristics associated with mechanical systems, including physical quantities, motion, and energy. Examples: physical quantities—gravity, inertia, friction - motion—linear, rotary, oscillating - energy—work, power, efficiency, mechanical advantage