Fluently add and subtract within 5.
- characteristics of addition and subtraction contexts such as putting together, adding to, taking apart, and taking from.
- Strategies for efficiently determining sums and differences within five.
- Use addition strategies efficiently.
- Fluency involves a mixture of "just knowing" answers, knowing answers from patterns, and knowing answers from the use of strategies. The word fluently is used in the standards to mean accurately, efficiently, and flexibly.