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Overview

The digital tool demonstrates the properties of a wave and defines each of the following terms: frequency, amplitude, wavelength, crest, trough, energy, and Hertz.

Students will sketch an ocean scene on a 4x6 note card that depicts a large wave moving toward a beach. Then, the students will label the parts of the wave and write the definitions to the terms on the back of the note card as they discuss the interactive digital tool.

This learning activity was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

UP:SC15.8.17

Vocabulary

• Manipulate
• Model
• Wave
• Simple wave
• Predict
• Wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength)
• Energy
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Illustrate
• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
• Photons
• Hertz
• Volts
• Joules
• Displacement

Knowledge

Students know:
• Waves represent repeating quantities.
• A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
• The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point in a certain time. The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz) and one hertz is equal to one wave per second.
• Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the wave pattern from equilibrium.
• Wavelength is the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs.
• The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it travels.
• The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
• Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of mass-less particles, called photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount of energy. The different types of radiation are defined by the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwave photons have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared photons have still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and, the most energetic of all, gamma-rays.
• Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, or Hertz. Wavelength is measured in meters. Energy is measured in electron volts or Joules.

Skills

Students are able to:
• Develop a model of a simple wave and identify the relevant components.
• Describe the relationships between components of the model.
• Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
• Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between waves and their positions in the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.

Understanding

Students understand that:
• Relationships exist between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.
• These relationships can be predicted and described with models of simple waves.*The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation.
• Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency and the types of radiation are arranged in the spectrum based on the measure of their energy, wavelength, and/or frequency.
• The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.

Scientific and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns; Systems and System Models

Phase

Before/Engage
During/Explore/Explain
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

The students will...

• identify wave properties such as crest, trough, wavelength, amplitude, and frequency.
• describe the relationship between frequency, amplitude, and wavelength.
• create a model of a wave.

Activity Details

Prior to watching the digital tool, give students a 4x6 note card and instruct them to draw a large wave moving toward a beach. The teacher may need to model this on the board in order for the wave to have a trough, wavelength, and crest. Next, have the students create a beach scene.

As the students watch the digital tool, "Wave Trait," they will label the card and write the definition the each of the terms on the back of the card. (The video may need to be paused for the slower students in the class so they have time to write the information).

Once all the students have finished with their cards, then have the students to turn and talk to a peer and share their illustrations.

1. Next, have all the students to line up and join hands. (They will be doing the wave.)
2. At different intervals say stop and ask a student to identify if his or her hand is at a trough or crest.
3. Repeat the wave motion but speed up the command and ask a student to describe his or her observations.
4. Continue to play the wave activity until students have a good understanding of the properties of a wave.

https://digital.scetv.org/knowitall/nasa/sound/wave_traits.html

Whole Group Instruction:

• A rope (at least 10 feet long)
• Two student volunteers
• Piece of tape (colored tape works best)

1. Put a piece of tape in about the middle of the rope.

2. Tie the rope to something or let the student hold on to one end of it.

3. Pull the rope so that it is a bit slack but not quite touching the floor.

4.  Instruct the student to move his or her arm up and down.

5. Repeat the motion at a faster pace (not too fast) and see the results. Be sure to point out the action of the tape in the middle of the rope.

6. Whole group discussion based on the observations of the class related to wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.

Individual Wave Model:

Materials: yarn, construction paper, ruler, and glue

Give students a sheet of construction paper and tell them to write a title:

Transverse Wave

Next, students will draw a straight line across the middle of the construction paper about 8 inches long.

This will be the resting point of the wave.

Now, the students will glue/tape the yarn to create a wave that has various frequencies, wavelengths, and amplitudes.

Finally, have the students to label their model.

Assessment Strategies

Assessment Strategies

Students will be informally assessed as they play the wave game.

Students will be assessed on their creation of a model of the wave and the identification of its components.

Students will write a paragraph at the bottom of their wave model explaining how energy increases and decreases as amplitude and frequency increases and decreases.

Variation Tips

The following video will help the visual and musical learners in the classroom understanding the scientific concepts of this activity.

"Sound & Light Waves" on YouTube.com

This digital tool can also be completed one-on-one if students have access to a digital device.

The art portion of the activity can also be substituted with the image from the digital tool if time is an issue.

Background / Preparation

Each student will need a 4 x 6 note card.

Colored pencils (optional)

The teacher will need access to a projector for whole group instruction.

Whole Group Instruction of a Wave Materials:

• A rope (at least 10 feet long)
• Two student volunteers
• A piece of tape (colored tape works best)

Individual Wave Materials:

Construction Paper (1 sheet per student)

24-inch piece of yarn (1 per student)

ruler

liquid glue or clear tape (groups may share)