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### Overview

This lesson, “Push Me, Pull You” is Day 2 in a series of lessons that help to explain how forces affect objects. In this lesson, students will work as a whole group and in pairs to investigate objects that push or pull other objects, or objects that must be pushed or pulled. As a group, the class will decide on a definition of "push" and "pull".  They will then go outdoors to identify and explore objects that can be pushed or pulled. They will demonstrate pushing and pulling on the playground by doing "push-ups" and "pull-ups" using playground equipment.  In Day 1, “Move It!”, students will identify objects that can be moved and demonstrate how movement puts objects in motion In Day 3, “Tug of War!” students describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

## UP:SC15.K.1

### Vocabulary

• Push
• Pull
• Collide
• Investigate
• Result
• Motion
• Objects
• Forces
• Strengths
• Directions
• Refute

### Knowledge

Students know:
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

### Skills

Students are able to:
• Investigate forces and interactions.
• Describe objects and their motions.
• Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

### Understanding

Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.

### Scientific and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

### Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will know:

• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

Students will predict the effect of the push or pull on the motion of an object, based on prior experiences.

Students will understand that push and/or pull is a force that affects motion, such as speeding up or slowing down the movement.

Students will demonstrate that an object moves in the direction of the push or pull and be able to identify the pattern created by pushing and pulling.

### Procedures/Activities

ENGAGE:  The class will review the movement of objects recorded on the chart during Day 1:  "Move It!" lesson. Any misconceptions or areas that were confusing not addressed in Day 1 should be discussed now.

The students will brainstorm opposite movement that results in motion, such as walk/run, open/close, push/pull.

EXPLORE:  Students will locate objects in the classroom that push or pull or need to be pushed or pulled to be used. They will perform those actions with classroom objects and record findings in their science notebook. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

Students will come back together. Through discussion as a group complete a push/pull Venn Diagram, available for download in the Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  Students will work together as a whole group to create definitions of push and pull. The book, Give it a Push! Give it a Pull! by Jennifer Boothroyd will be read to the class. The class definitions will be compared with ones presented in the book.

ELABORATE: Students will go outdoors to practice pushing and pulling with objects on the playground, such as doing pull-ups or push-ups. Students will answer the questions:

• Can pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions?
• Can Pushing or pulling on an object change the speed or direction of its motion or can start or stop it?
• When objects touch or collide, will they push on one another and change motion?
• What happens when there is a bigger push or pull?Will the objects speed up or slow down more quickly?

ENGAGE:  The class will review the movement of objects recorded on the chart during Day 1:  "Move It!" lesson. Any misconceptions or areas that were confusing not addressed in Day 1 should be discussed now.

The students will brainstorm opposite movement that results in motion, such as walk/run, open/close, push/pull.

EXPLORE:  Students will locate objects in the classroom that push or pull or need to be pushed or pulled to be used. They will perform those actions with classroom objects and record findings in their science notebook. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

Students will come back together. Through discussion as a group complete a push/pull Venn Diagram, available for download in the Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  Students will work together as a whole group to create definitions of push and pull. The book, Give it a Push! Give it a Pull! by Jennifer Boothroyd will be read to the class. The class definitions will be compared with ones presented in the book.

ELABORATE: Students will go outdoors to practice pushing and pulling with objects on the playground, such as doing pull-ups or push-ups. Students will answer the questions:

• Can pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions?
• Can Pushing or pulling on an object change the speed or direction of its motion or can start or stop it?
• When objects touch or collide, will they push on one another and change motion?
• What happens when there is a bigger push or pull?Will the objects speed up or slow down more quickly?

### Assessment Strategies

Teacher observation of student inquiry and recording of thoughts on "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet. Misconceptions should be addressed with the student(s) following the lesson or on Day 3 at the beginning of the lesson.

Class discussion of comments posted on chart paper

Drawings/recording of thoughts in their science notebook

### Acceleration

Books found in Materials and Equipment may be shared, if time permits

### Intervention

The teacher should provide additional opportunities for students to push and pull objects and observe the movement of them.

### Total Duration

31 to 60 Minutes

### Background/Preparation

The prior experience with the motion of objects reinforces the investigation of "push" and "pull" of objects in this activity. Students will investigate strengths of pushes and pulls on a variety of objects to identify a pattern of distance, speed, and direction.

### Materials and Resources

Move It! Motion, Forces and You by Adrienne Mason

Motion, by Darlene R. Stille

How Things Move, by Don L. Curry

Energy in Motion by Melissa Stewart

Give it a Push! Give it a Pull! by Jennifer Boothroyd

Push and Pull by Patricia Murphy

And Everyone Shouted, "Pull!" by Claire Llewellyn

Venn diagram on chart tablet for recording push and pull ideas during the discussion, available for download in Attachments.

science notebook, pencil

clipboard, Student Observations of Movement of Objects (available for download in Attachments)

### Technology Resources Needed

Forces and Motion, BBC interactive