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### Overview

This lesson,"Tug of War!" is Day 3 in a series of lessons that help to explain how forces affect objects. In this lesson, students describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to a ball's movement.  Students will work in a whole group and then with a partner, sitting in a circle, to push and then receive a ball, with a flattened palm, from another student. Students will observe the "collision" of the ball and hand. They will then go outdoors or in the gym to kick the ball with the side of the foot to direct the ball in different directions. The ball will be stopped or redirected in the same way. Students will then pull a ball toward themselves and describe the difference in the push and pull of the ball. Students could play a "Kickball Game" to watch the "collision" of the ball. In Day 1, “Move It! students identify objects that can be moved and demonstrate how movement puts objects in motion. In Day 2, “Push Me, Pull You”  students demonstrate that objects can be moved by pushing or pulling them.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

## UP:SC15.K.1

### Vocabulary

• Push
• Pull
• Collide
• Investigate
• Result
• Motion
• Objects
• Forces
• Strengths
• Directions
• Refute

### Knowledge

Students know:
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

### Skills

Students are able to:
• Investigate forces and interactions.
• Describe objects and their motions.
• Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

### Understanding

Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.

### Scientific and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

### Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

## UP:SC15.K.2

### Vocabulary

• Force
• Speed
• Direction
• Data
• Observe
• Describe
• Engineering
• Investigation
• Imagine
• Plan
• Create
• Improve
• Solution

### Knowledge

Students know:
• The relative speed or direction of the object before a push or pull is applied (e.g., faster, slower).
• The relative speed or direction of the object after a push or pull is applied.
• How the relative strength of a push or pull affects the speed or direction of an object (e.g., harder, softer).

### Skills

Students are able to:
• Conduct an investigation.
• Collect and record observations from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.
• Organize information in a usable format.
• Analyze data from tests to determine change in speed or direction.

### Understanding

Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about the effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.

### Scientific and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

### Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will:

• investigate forces and interactions.
• describe objects and their motions.
• describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

Students will know:

• pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• when objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• a bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

### Procedures/Activities

ENGAGE:  The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.

The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball.

EXPLORE:    The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball.

Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson.

The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.

Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball.

ELABORATE:  Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.

ENGAGE:  The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.

The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball.

EXPLORE:    The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball.

Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson.

The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.

Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball.

ELABORATE:  Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.

ENGAGE:  The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.

The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball.

EXPLORE:    The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball.

Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson.

The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.

Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball.

ELABORATE:  Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.

ENGAGE:  The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.

The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball.

EXPLORE:    The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball.

Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson.

The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.

EXPLAIN:  The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.

Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball.

ELABORATE:  Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.

### Assessment Strategies

Teacher observation of student inquiry and recording of thoughts on "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet. Misconceptions should be addressed with the student(s) following the lesson or during the EXPLAIN stage of the lesson.

Class discussion of comments posted on chart paper

Drawings/recording of thoughts in their science notebook

### Acceleration

The students will select a question they would like to find the answer to regarding the motion of the balls. They should be encouraged to develop a hypothesis about the question, then plan the investigation they would conduct. The students would then be encouraged to carry out the investigation, recording in their science notebook what was discovered. They should share their findings with other students.

### Intervention

The teacher should provide additional opportunities for students to kick and receive the ball and observe its movement. Another student who understands the concept should be partnered with this student to further explore/explain.

### Total Duration

31 to 60 Minutes

### Background/Preparation

The prior experience with the motion of objects reinforces the investigation of "push" and "pull" of playground balls in this activity. Students will investigate push and pull as they roll a ball to others in a circle. They will investigate how the strength of the push or pull affects the ball's speed and movement.

NOTE: Safety measures should be taken when forces are applied to objects. Goggles should be worn during the rolling/kicking of balls.

### Materials and Resources

Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn

Give it a Push! Give it a Pull! by Jennifer Boothroyd

Push and Pull by Patricia Murphy

And Everyone Shouted, "Pull!" by Claire Llewellyn

kickball or soccer ball, or enough playground balls that every 2-4 students could share during the EXPLORE portion.

Science notebook, pencil, crayons

chart paper, markers

goggles

### Technology Resources Needed

Pushes and Pulls BBC Science Clips

computer with an internet connection

Interactive White Board