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### Overview

In this hands-on investigation, students will demonstrate how forces have an effect on objects. This lesson, “Move It!” is Day 1 in a series of lessons that help to explain how forces affect objects.  Students will identify objects that can be moved and demonstrate how movement puts objects in motion. In Day 2, “Push Me, Pull You”, students demonstrate that objects can be moved by pushing or pulling them. On Day 3, “Tug of War!”, students describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

## UP:SC15.K.1

### Vocabulary

• Push
• Pull
• Collide
• Investigate
• Result
• Motion
• Objects
• Forces
• Strengths
• Directions
• Refute

### Knowledge

Students know:
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

### Skills

Students are able to:
• Investigate forces and interactions.
• Describe objects and their motions.
• Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

### Understanding

Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.

### Scientific and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

### Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths act upon them.

Students will describe motion in terms of the object involved in the movement.

Students will observe and generate questions about motion observed or future movement.

### Procedures/Activities

ENGAGE:  Students will participate in a movement song/game such as the Hokey Pokey to see they can move their bodies as they wish. Students will brainstorm a list of objects that can move or be moved (i.e. blocks, toys, chairs, etc.) as the teacher records on chart paper. The chart should remain posted in the classroom to be added to as students brainstorm additional things that move or can be moved.

EXPLORE: The teacher will use chart paper to present a question about motion, such as "What are different ways to move an object?" A chair needing to be moved could be used as an example. The chart will be posted during the activity to complete during the EXPLAIN stage of the lesson.

The students will be reminded to wear their GOGGLES as they investigate the motion of different objects around the classroom in an effort to answer the question posed. Students will work with a partner to investigate the movement of objects making predictions and verifying findings.

The teacher should observe and guide students through questioning to lead them to investigate further, such as "What other motion could be used to move that object?" The teacher should record students' thoughts, misconceptions, further questions, etc. on the "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet on their clipboard as they talk with students. The sheet can be downloaded from the Attachments below.

EXPLAIN: Concepts Explained and Vocabulary Defined

Students will be gathered after a few minutes of investigating. The posted question will be posed "What are different ways to move an object?" The students will share and explain the ways objects were moved and how the object acted as a result of the movement. The students can demonstrate the ways objects were moved. The teacher should ask students to name the type of motion used, for example, whether they "pushed" or "pulled" the object. Keywords (i.e. walk, run, push, pull, kick, drag, etc.) should be recorded on the chart. The students will return to their seats to record their observations in their science notebooks through sentences, drawings, or both.

Elaborate: The students should be reminded to watch for moving objects and objects that are being moved throughout the day and at home. In a group conversation, ask students to answer questions about their observations of what happens when moving objects. What did they experience and notice throughout the day?

ENGAGE:  Students will participate in a movement song/game such as the Hokey Pokey to see they can move their bodies as they wish. Students will brainstorm a list of objects that can move or be moved (i.e. blocks, toys, chairs, etc.) as the teacher records on chart paper. The chart should remain posted in the classroom to be added to as students brainstorm additional things that move or can be moved.

EXPLORE: The teacher will use chart paper to present a question about motion, such as "What are different ways to move an object?" A chair needing to be moved could be used as an example. The chart will be posted during the activity to complete during the EXPLAIN stage of the lesson.

The students will be reminded to wear their GOGGLES as they investigate the motion of different objects around the classroom in an effort to answer the question posed. Students will work with a partner to investigate the movement of objects making predictions and verifying findings.

The teacher should observe and guide students through questioning to lead them to investigate further, such as "What other motion could be used to move that object?" The teacher should record students' thoughts, misconceptions, further questions, etc. on the "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet on their clipboard as they talk with students. The sheet can be downloaded from the Attachments below.

EXPLAIN: Concepts Explained and Vocabulary Defined

Students will be gathered after a few minutes of investigating. The posted question will be posed "What are different ways to move an object?" The students will share and explain the ways objects were moved and how the object acted as a result of the movement. The students can demonstrate the ways objects were moved. The teacher should ask students to name the type of motion used, for example, whether they "pushed" or "pulled" the object. Keywords (i.e. walk, run, push, pull, kick, drag, etc.) should be recorded on the chart. The students will return to their seats to record their observations in their science notebooks through sentences, drawings, or both.

Elaborate: The students should be reminded to watch for moving objects and objects that are being moved throughout the day and at home. In a group conversation, ask students to answer questions about their observations of what happens when moving objects. What did they experience and notice throughout the day?

### Assessment Strategies

Teacher observation of student inquiry and recording of thoughts on the "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet. Misconceptions should be addressed with the student(s) following the lesson or on Day 2 at the beginning of the lesson.

Class discussion of comments posted on chart paper

Drawings/recording of thoughts in their science notebook

### Acceleration

Books found in Materials and Equipment section may be shared, if time permits.

### Intervention

The teacher should provide additional opportunities for students to move objects to observe their movement.

### Total Duration

31 to 60 Minutes

### Background/Preparation

Students apply their previous experience with toys to understand that motion is needed to move objects. Students will experience activities that build upon each other and lead them to examine, describe, and reflect on the motion of objects. Students will analyze observations to form a sense of what motion is. Students will be challenged to think about motion and the variety of ways it can be used.

NOTE: Safety measures should be taken when forces are applied to objects.

### Materials and Resources

Move It! Motion, Forces and You (preview) by Adrienne Mason

Motion (preview) by Darlene R. Stille

How Things Move (preview) by Don L. Curry

Chart paper

Markers

Clipboard