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### Overview

This lesson will engage students in the ways an object can move by applying the forces of push and pull. Students will investigate how to make an object move faster, slower, and stop.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

## UP:SC15.K.1

### Vocabulary

• Push
• Pull
• Collide
• Investigate
• Result
• Motion
• Objects
• Forces
• Strengths
• Directions
• Refute

### Knowledge

Students know:
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

### Skills

Students are able to:
• Investigate forces and interactions.
• Describe objects and their motions.
• Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

### Understanding

Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.

### Scientific and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

### Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will be able to explore the different ways objects can move and explain the forces, push or pull, to make objects move.

Students will use objects to mimic how different objects of varying weights stop and go by varying the momentum of force applied.

### Procedures/Activities

ENGAGE:

Teacher:

Place the paper on the edge of a table or desk with most of the paper off the table.

Stack a stack of washers on top of the paper.

Hold onto the loose edge of the paper and quickly pull down on the paper.

Students:

Write what happens to the stack of washers in science notebook or sheet of paper.

Brainstorm activities in their real-life that require a push and/or a pull.

EXPLORE:

Teacher:

Define Force as a push or pull.

Call on students to take turns acting out an activity involving some type of force. (ex: moving chair)

Students:

Guess what activity is being acted out and what type of force occurred (push or pull).

EXPLAIN:

Teachers and students:

Use the action acted out (ex: moving chair) as new words for the song, "Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush." Ex: "This is the way we move our chair, move our chair, move our chair. This is the way we move our chair, with a push or pull in the morning."

During this activity, ask these questions.

1. What makes things stop and go?

2. How can we make them go faster or slower?

3. How does the weight of an object affect the motion?

Teacher:

Model a push and pull of the rolling chair.

During this activity, ask the questions.

1. What made the chair move?

2. What can make the chair go faster? Slower?

3. What could make the chair stop?

ELABORATE & EVALUATE

Students:

Watch the video on Brainpop Jr. about forces

Complete the 5 question quiz on Brainpop Jr. You can print and copy the quiz or take the digital quiz through Brainpop Jr. You can also enter the questions in online quizzing websites, such as Kahoot.

Complete an exit slip (see assessments) answering:

1. Name 2 outside activities that would require a push.

2. Name 2 outside activities that would require a pull.

OR

Have several pictures of activities available. As each student walks to the door. They choose one picture and tell whether the activity requires a push or pull.

ENGAGE:

Teacher:

Place the paper on the edge of a table or desk with most of the paper off the table.

Stack a stack of washers on top of the paper.

Hold onto the loose edge of the paper and quickly pull down on the paper.

Students:

Write what happens to the stack of washers in science notebook or sheet of paper.

Brainstorm activities in their real-life that require a push and/or a pull.

EXPLORE:

Teacher:

Define Force as a push or pull.

Call on students to take turns acting out an activity involving some type of force. (ex: moving chair)

Students:

Guess what activity is being acted out and what type of force occurred (push or pull).

EXPLAIN:

Teachers and students:

Use the action acted out (ex: moving chair) as new words for the song, "Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush." Ex: "This is the way we move our chair, move our chair, move our chair. This is the way we move our chair, with a push or pull in the morning."

During this activity, ask these questions.

1. What makes things stop and go?

2. How can we make them go faster or slower?

3. How does the weight of an object affect the motion?

Teacher:

Model a push and pull of the rolling chair.

During this activity, ask the questions.

1. What made the chair move?

2. What can make the chair go faster? Slower?

3. What could make the chair stop?

ELABORATE & EVALUATE

Students:

Watch the video on Brainpop Jr. about forces

Complete the 5 question quiz on Brainpop Jr. You can print and copy the quiz or take the digital quiz through Brainpop Jr. You can also enter the questions in online quizzing websites, such as Kahoot.

Complete an exit slip (see assessments) answering:

1. Name 2 outside activities that would require a push.

2. Name 2 outside activities that would require a pull.

OR

Have several pictures of activities available. As each student walks to the door. They choose one picture and tell whether the activity requires a push or pull.

### Assessment Strategies

Evaluate exit slip answers for accuracy. Revisit concepts as needed.

Brainpop Jr. Quiz on forces

### Acceleration

Students use Voki to create an avatar to explain forces to another student. Students should answer the questions in their presentation.

1. What makes things move and stop?

2. How can we make things move faster or slower?

3. What would happen if two objects in motion collide with each other?

### Total Duration

31 to 60 Minutes

### Background/Preparation

Write vocabulary words on board: force, measure, motion pull, push, stop, fast, slow

Ensure students have a basic understanding of each word while encouraging students to use these words during the lesson.

### Materials and Resources

Materials:

Washers

Paper

Rolling chair

Optional exit slip activity:Several pictures of activities for students to identify the force needed.

### Technology Resources Needed

Computer and projector to show Brainpop Jr. video on forces.