**Title:** Mission Addition with Subtraction Action

**Description:**
This lesson uses manipulatives, acting out situations, and verbal explanations along with technology to work on addition and subtraction with kindergarten students. Students will work in groups to practice different methods of adding and subtracting.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 8: Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. (Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem. This applies wherever drawings are mentioned in the Standards.) [K-OA1]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K)

**Title:**Mission Addition with Subtraction Action

**Description:**This lesson uses manipulatives, acting out situations, and verbal explanations along with technology to work on addition and subtraction with kindergarten students. Students will work in groups to practice different methods of adding and subtracting.

**Title:** Ice Fishing is for the Birds

**Description:**
In this lesson, students will represent addition sentences with pictorial representations. Students will also solve an addition problem by using cut out objects to represent the problem.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 9: Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. [K-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K)

**Title:**Ice Fishing is for the Birds

**Description:**In this lesson, students will represent addition sentences with pictorial representations. Students will also solve an addition problem by using cut out objects to represent the problem.

**Title:** Hundred Blocks Board

**Description:**
In this lesson students will practice adding, subtracting, and multiplying without regrouping using a hundred blocks board. Students will be given opportunities to identify and discuss different patterns that they discover and relate number patterns to visual patterns.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 9: Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. [3-OA9]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 3), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Hundred Blocks Board

**Description:**In this lesson students will practice adding, subtracting, and multiplying without regrouping using a hundred blocks board. Students will be given opportunities to identify and discuss different patterns that they discover and relate number patterns to visual patterns.

**Title:** Subtraction Fun!

**Description:**
The students will be introduced to the concept of subtraction. They will use different manipulatives to practice this concept. The students will also learn to recognize the minus sign.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 9: Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. [K-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K)

**Title:**Subtraction Fun!

**Description:**The students will be introduced to the concept of subtraction. They will use different manipulatives to practice this concept. The students will also learn to recognize the minus sign.

**Title:** Begin with Buttons: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students review the work of the previous lessons through a variety of activity stations, one of which involves using an interactive Web site. Students model with buttons and record addition and subtraction.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 5: Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). [1-OA5]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Begin with Buttons: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students review the work of the previous lessons through a variety of activity stations, one of which involves using an interactive Web site. Students model with buttons and record addition and subtraction.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Zero Our Hero

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore sets of zero items and practice writing the numbers 0 through 5. Students count back from five, identify sets of up to five items, and record 0 on a chart. They also construct sets of up to five items.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 3: Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). [K-CC3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Zero Our Hero

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore sets of zero items and practice writing the numbers 0 through 5. Students count back from five, identify sets of up to five items, and record 0 on a chart. They also construct sets of up to five items.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** More and More Buttons

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students use buttons to create, model, and record addition sentences. They also explore commutativity in addition contexts.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 16: Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.) [K-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**More and More Buttons

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students use buttons to create, model, and record addition sentences. They also explore commutativity in addition contexts.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Lost Buttons

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate subtraction more directly, beginning with the easier take away mode. They model take away subtraction with buttons and write subtraction sentences. They also work with the additive identity (0) as an addend and as a difference and find missing addends.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 18: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. [2-MD5]

**Subject:**Language Arts,Mathematics

**Title:**Lost Buttons

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate subtraction more directly, beginning with the easier take away mode. They model take away subtraction with buttons and write subtraction sentences. They also work with the additive identity (0) as an addend and as a difference and find missing addends.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Take Away

**Description:**
This lesson, from Illuminations, helps introduce elementary students to subtraction. The objective is to create a link between students experiences and mathematics. By the end of the lesson, it is expected that students should have a deep understanding of subtraction and how it relates to their world.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 1: Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [1-OA1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Take Away

**Description:**This lesson, from Illuminations, helps introduce elementary students to subtraction. The objective is to create a link between students experiences and mathematics. By the end of the lesson, it is expected that students should have a deep understanding of subtraction and how it relates to their world.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Let's Learn Those Facts: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students display their knowledge of properties of objects for sorting and creating patterns. They also demonstrate an understanding of commutativity and model addition and subtraction of whole numbers using different representations.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 9: Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. [2-NBT5]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Let's Learn Those Facts: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students display their knowledge of properties of objects for sorting and creating patterns. They also demonstrate an understanding of commutativity and model addition and subtraction of whole numbers using different representations.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Addend Pairs to 12

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore pairs of numbers that add to 12 or less by playing a game. They then add to their personal addition chart and prepare a new chart that allows access to the facts they do not know.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 6: Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10.
Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). [1-OA6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Addend Pairs to 12

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore pairs of numbers that add to 12 or less by playing a game. They then add to their personal addition chart and prepare a new chart that allows access to the facts they do not know.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Create a House Number: Grades 1-2

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students look for all the possible solution sets for a mathematics problem involving a three-digit house number. They experiment with numbers to find all possible ways to add three different digits to obtain the given sum of six and explore the ways three digits can be placed together to form different three-digit numbers.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 9: Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. [K-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Create a House Number: Grades 1-2

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students look for all the possible solution sets for a mathematics problem involving a three-digit house number. They experiment with numbers to find all possible ways to add three different digits to obtain the given sum of six and explore the ways three digits can be placed together to form different three-digit numbers.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Links Away

**Description:**
In this seven-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students explore the five models of subtraction (counting, sets, number line, balanced equations and inverse of addition) using links. They also learn that the order property does not hold for subtraction and explore the relation between addition and subtraction. Students also write story problems in which subtraction is required and begin to memorize the subtraction facts.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 26: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares; describe the shares using the words *halves, thirds, half of, a third of*, etc.; and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, or four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. [2-G3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Links Away

**Description:**In this seven-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students explore the five models of subtraction (counting, sets, number line, balanced equations and inverse of addition) using links. They also learn that the order property does not hold for subtraction and explore the relation between addition and subtraction. Students also write story problems in which subtraction is required and begin to memorize the subtraction facts.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Links Away: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, reviews the work of the previous lessons and suggests a framework for summative assessment. Students review the models for subtraction, use the properties of subtraction, and memorize subtraction facts. During this lesson, students use the mathematical knowledge and skills developed in the previous lessons to demonstrate understanding and ability to apply that knowledge to playing a new game.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. (See standard 6, Grade 1, for a list of mental strategies.) By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers. [2-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Links Away: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, reviews the work of the previous lessons and suggests a framework for summative assessment. Students review the models for subtraction, use the properties of subtraction, and memorize subtraction facts. During this lesson, students use the mathematical knowledge and skills developed in the previous lessons to demonstrate understanding and ability to apply that knowledge to playing a new game.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Taking Away Sets

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, encourages students to explore another model for subtraction, the familiar set model. Reading one of the many books that feature subtraction sets the stage for this lesson in which the students write story problems, find differences using sets, and present results in a table. In the discussion of the table, they focus on the effects of subtracting all and subtracting 0.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 5: Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). [1-OA5]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Taking Away Sets

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, encourages students to explore another model for subtraction, the familiar set model. Reading one of the many books that feature subtraction sets the stage for this lesson in which the students write story problems, find differences using sets, and present results in a table. In the discussion of the table, they focus on the effects of subtracting all and subtracting 0.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Finding Four

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore the number four. They make sets of four, write the numeral 4, and compare sets of four to sets of one, two, and three.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 12: Fluently add and subtract within 5. [K-OA5]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Finding Four

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore the number four. They make sets of four, write the numeral 4, and compare sets of four to sets of one, two, and three.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Finding Sums to Six

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students discover the role of the additive identity and explore sums to six. They continue to fill in their personal addition chart.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 6: Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10.
Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). [1-OA6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Finding Sums to Six

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students discover the role of the additive identity and explore sums to six. They continue to fill in their personal addition chart.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Counting to Find Sums

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, focuses on the counting model for addition and begins with reading a counting book. Students model the numbers with counters as the book is read. Then they count the spots on each side of a domino and write in vertical and horizontal format the sums suggested by dominoes. Finally, the students illustrate a domino and record a sum it represents for their portfolio. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 6: Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10.
Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). [1-OA6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Counting to Find Sums

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, focuses on the counting model for addition and begins with reading a counting book. Students model the numbers with counters as the book is read. Then they count the spots on each side of a domino and write in vertical and horizontal format the sums suggested by dominoes. Finally, the students illustrate a domino and record a sum it represents for their portfolio. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Fact Family Fun

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, the relation of addition to subtraction is explored with fish-shaped crackers. The students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number and investigate fact families when one addend or the difference is 0.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. (See standard 6, Grade 1, for a list of mental strategies.) By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers. [2-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Fact Family Fun

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, the relation of addition to subtraction is explored with fish-shaped crackers. The students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number and investigate fact families when one addend or the difference is 0.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Building Sets of Ten

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore sets of up to 10 items and practice writing the numbers 0 through 10. Students count back from 10, identify sets of up to 10 objects, and record 10 on a chart. They also construct and decompose sets of up to 10 items. This lesson provides opportunities for reasoning and communication.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 16: Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.) [K-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Building Sets of Ten

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore sets of up to 10 items and practice writing the numbers 0 through 10. Students count back from 10, identify sets of up to 10 objects, and record 10 on a chart. They also construct and decompose sets of up to 10 items. This lesson provides opportunities for reasoning and communication.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Let's Count to 10

**Description:**
In this eight-lesson unit from Illuminations, students make groups of zero to ten objects, connect number names to the groups, compose and decompose numbers, and use numerals to record the size of a group. Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities are included in each lesson. The unit is most appropriate for students learning at the kindergarten and grade one levels.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 11: For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. [K-OA4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Let's Count to 10

**Description:**In this eight-lesson unit from Illuminations, students make groups of zero to ten objects, connect number names to the groups, compose and decompose numbers, and use numerals to record the size of a group. Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities are included in each lesson. The unit is most appropriate for students learning at the kindergarten and grade one levels.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Let's Count to 5

**Description:**
In this seven-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They use numerals to record the size of a group. Familiar nursery rhymes and songs and visual, auditory and kinesthetic activities are included in each lesson. The unit is most appropriate for students learning at the prekindergarten and kindergarten levels.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 11: For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. [K-OA4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Let's Count to 5

**Description:**In this seven-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students make groups of zero through five objects and connect number words to the groups. They use numerals to record the size of a group. Familiar nursery rhymes and songs and visual, auditory and kinesthetic activities are included in each lesson. The unit is most appropriate for students learning at the prekindergarten and kindergarten levels.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Marble Math

**Digital Tool:**
website **Web Address URL:**
http://www.abcya.com/addition.htm **Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 12: Fluently add and subtract within 5. [K-OA5]**Digital Tool Description:** Marble Math is a game on www.abcya.com that allows students to practice addition with manipulatives. Students can use the tool to practice addition. The game tracks the students progress and shows students which answers are correct and incorrect. Students can use virtual manipulatives to assist them in correctly adding a number sentence. As students progress to the next level the problems get more difficult.

**Title:**Marble Math

**Digital Tool:**website

**Digital Tool Description:**Marble Math is a game on www.abcya.com that allows students to practice addition with manipulatives. Students can use the tool to practice addition. The game tracks the students progress and shows students which answers are correct and incorrect. Students can use virtual manipulatives to assist them in correctly adding a number sentence. As students progress to the next level the problems get more difficult.

**Title:** Let's Make Ten

**Digital Tool:**
Ten Frame **Web Address URL:**
http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=75 **Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 9: Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. [K-OA2]**Digital Tool Description:** The ten frame is an interactive resource that allows students to build on their number sense while moving towards thinking about computation skills. The ten frame is used to help students to review one to one correspondence skills and begin to work on beginning addition.

**Title:**Let's Make Ten

**Digital Tool:**Ten Frame

**Digital Tool Description:**The ten frame is an interactive resource that allows students to build on their number sense while moving towards thinking about computation skills. The ten frame is used to help students to review one to one correspondence skills and begin to work on beginning addition.

**Title:** Illuminations Activities

**Description:**
This Web page, from Illuminations, allows users to access all of Illuminations' online, interactive activities. The activities span the grades and encompass all areas of mathematics.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 14: Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. [2-MD1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Illuminations Activities

**Description:**This Web page, from Illuminations, allows users to access all of Illuminations' online, interactive activities. The activities span the grades and encompass all areas of mathematics.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

**Title:** How Many Under the Shell?

**Description:**
This student interactive from Illuminations allows students to discover basic addition and subtraction facts. When Okta hides bubbles, students try to determine the number under the shell.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. (See standard 6, Grade 1, for a list of mental strategies.) By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers. [2-OA2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**How Many Under the Shell?

**Description:**This student interactive from Illuminations allows students to discover basic addition and subtraction facts. When Okta hides bubbles, students try to determine the number under the shell.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Five Frame

**Description:**
This student interactive from Illuminations presents four games that help students develop counting and addition skills. Each of the games uses a frame of five.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (0) 12: Fluently add and subtract within 5. [K-OA5]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Five Frame

**Description:**This student interactive from Illuminations presents four games that help students develop counting and addition skills. Each of the games uses a frame of five.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2