**Title:** Light and Sight – Why We Need Light to See

**Description:**
In this lesson, students will investigate objects’ appearance in varying levels of light to help them construct an explanation that objects can only be seen when light is available to illuminate them. Students will discuss why objects look different in a dark room and graph their preferences for sleeping with a light on or off. Then, they will investigate how an object’s appearance changes in different lighting conditions in small group centers. Finally, they will model the moon’s path around the sun to see how light from the sun causes the moon’s appearance to change as it orbits Earth. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will use their experiences as evidence to explain that light is essential for sight.
This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.
**Standard(s): **

[SC2015] (1) 2: Construct explanations from observations that objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them (e.g., moon being illuminated by the sun, colors and patterns in a kaleidoscope being illuminated when held toward a light).

**Subject:**English Language Arts (1), or Mathematics (1), or Science (1)

**Title:**Light and Sight – Why We Need Light to See

**Description:**In this lesson, students will investigate objects’ appearance in varying levels of light to help them construct an explanation that objects can only be seen when light is available to illuminate them. Students will discuss why objects look different in a dark room and graph their preferences for sleeping with a light on or off. Then, they will investigate how an object’s appearance changes in different lighting conditions in small group centers. Finally, they will model the moon’s path around the sun to see how light from the sun causes the moon’s appearance to change as it orbits Earth. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will use their experiences as evidence to explain that light is essential for sight. This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.

**Title:** The Changing Sun

**Description:**
Students will observe the changes of the sun over the course of a day and then over a 4 month period. Students will document these changes and then graph them. Finally, students will see the relationship between the patterns of the sun and the effect the pattern has on our daily lives.
This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
**Standard(s): **

[SC2015] (1) 9: Observe seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of year (e.g., more hours of daylight during summer as compared to winter).

**Subject:**Mathematics (1), or Science (1)

**Title:**The Changing Sun

**Description:**Students will observe the changes of the sun over the course of a day and then over a 4 month period. Students will document these changes and then graph them. Finally, students will see the relationship between the patterns of the sun and the effect the pattern has on our daily lives. This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

**Title:** Spiders: Are They Scary or Nice?

**Description:**
Children often do not understand spiders because spiders look scary. In this lesson, students will graph spider preferences and record observations of spiders in a natural habitat. Students will research spider information using the Internet. Students will illustrate a vivarium for a spider habitat, including 5 environmental characteristics. This lesson will take more than one day to complete.
This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1), or Credit Recovery Science (1 - 2), or Science (2)

**Title:**Spiders: Are They Scary or Nice?

**Description:**Children often do not understand spiders because spiders look scary. In this lesson, students will graph spider preferences and record observations of spiders in a natural habitat. Students will research spider information using the Internet. Students will illustrate a vivarium for a spider habitat, including 5 environmental characteristics. This lesson will take more than one day to complete. This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.

**Title:** Count Your Raisins

**Description:**
In this lesson students will create a class line plot using data collected from boxes of raisins. This activity will be used to collect, organize, represent, and describe data using the line plot.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1 - 2)

**Title:**Count Your Raisins

**Description:**In this lesson students will create a class line plot using data collected from boxes of raisins. This activity will be used to collect, organize, represent, and describe data using the line plot.

**Title:** Cookie Jar Subtraction

**Description:**
In this language development subtraction lesson English Language Learners will learn and practice using vocabulary and sentence structures for subtraction. The lesson incorporates technology, hands-on manipulatives, and multiple opportunities for interaction to engage students in the math content. The format follows the Sheltered English Instructional Protocol (SIOP).
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1)

**Title:**Cookie Jar Subtraction

**Description:**In this language development subtraction lesson English Language Learners will learn and practice using vocabulary and sentence structures for subtraction. The lesson incorporates technology, hands-on manipulatives, and multiple opportunities for interaction to engage students in the math content. The format follows the Sheltered English Instructional Protocol (SIOP).

**Title:** Digging In For Dirt Day!

**Description:**
This lesson is managed through stations that students will rotate around every 20- 30 minutes. Each second grade teacher conducts one station. Parent volunteers can also be used to manage stations. Students will use an auger to gather soil, produce a soil painting, make a dirt cup to represent layers of soil, do a Shake It Up! activity to examine how soil settles, and examine local soil.
This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[ELA2015] (2) 23: Write informative or explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. [W.2.2]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (2), or Mathematics (K - 2), or Credit Recovery Science (2), or Science (4), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Digging In For Dirt Day!

**Description:**This lesson is managed through stations that students will rotate around every 20- 30 minutes. Each second grade teacher conducts one station. Parent volunteers can also be used to manage stations. Students will use an auger to gather soil, produce a soil painting, make a dirt cup to represent layers of soil, do a Shake It Up! activity to examine how soil settles, and examine local soil. This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** Making Measuring Meaningful!

**Description:**
This activity helps students recognize that measuring tools can come in many different shapes and sizes. The student's will develop creative-thinking, math, and social skills as they use nontraditional and traditional measuring tools.
This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (K), or Mathematics (K - 1)

**Title:**Making Measuring Meaningful!

**Description:**This activity helps students recognize that measuring tools can come in many different shapes and sizes. The student's will develop creative-thinking, math, and social skills as they use nontraditional and traditional measuring tools. This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** To Push or Pull, That Is The Question?

**Description:**
In group students will learn to identify pushes and pulls. Students will learn how a push or pull will affect various items.
This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 6: Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10.
Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). [1-OA6]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 1), or Credit Recovery Science (K - 1), or Science (K), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**To Push or Pull, That Is The Question?

**Description:**In group students will learn to identify pushes and pulls. Students will learn how a push or pull will affect various items. This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** Let's Get Going!

**Description:**
By doing this lesson the students will have the opportunity to explore transportation firsts. By exporing this information, the students will make a timeline charting the year when the forms of transportation were invented.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1 - 2)

**Title:**Let's Get Going!

**Description:**By doing this lesson the students will have the opportunity to explore transportation firsts. By exporing this information, the students will make a timeline charting the year when the forms of transportation were invented.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** We Are Family!

**Description:**
This is a fun way to incorporate fun with addition and subtraction fact families. The students will have fun matching facts and making a happy home.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 2), or Technology Education (3 - 5)

**Title:**We Are Family!

**Description:**This is a fun way to incorporate fun with addition and subtraction fact families. The students will have fun matching facts and making a happy home.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** Multiplication Facts, Facts, Facts and Some Reese's Pieces for Snack!!

**Description:**
This lesson teaches the basic math multiplication facts in a fun way so that students will want to remember them. Knowledge of all multiplication facts will help with learning subsequent skills in longer multiplication, division, fractions, etc.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 5: Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) [3-OA5]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1 - 3), or Technology Education (3 - 5)

**Title:**Multiplication Facts, Facts, Facts and Some Reese's Pieces for Snack!!

**Description:**This lesson teaches the basic math multiplication facts in a fun way so that students will want to remember them. Knowledge of all multiplication facts will help with learning subsequent skills in longer multiplication, division, fractions, etc.

**Title:** What's in a Name: Graphing Lesson

**Description:**
During this lesson, students will learn to graph information. After reading, Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes, students will discuss the length of their names. Students will learn to graph their names and compare their names to others.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Character Education (K - 12), or Mathematics (K - 2)

**Title:**What's in a Name: Graphing Lesson

**Description:**During this lesson, students will learn to graph information. After reading, Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes, students will discuss the length of their names. Students will learn to graph their names and compare their names to others.

**Title:** My Favorite Time of Day

**Description:**
This is a hands-on mathematics lesson for telling time to the hour. Students will use individual clocks with partners for guided practice. The assessment will be a writing/drawing activity incorporating the use of a computer for word processing purposes.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 20: Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. [2-MD7]

**Subject:**Mathematics (1 - 2), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**My Favorite Time of Day

**Description:**This is a hands-on mathematics lesson for telling time to the hour. Students will use individual clocks with partners for guided practice. The assessment will be a writing/drawing activity incorporating the use of a computer for word processing purposes.

**Title:** Congruent Figures

**Description:**
This lesson is an introduction to a unit about congruent shapes. Students will begin by listening to a book about shapes. They will then complete several hands-on activities, including sorting shapes, using their bodies to form congruent shapes, and using activities on the Internet to practice forming congruent shapes.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 26: Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares; describe the shares using the words *halves, thirds, half of, a third of*, etc.; and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, or four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. [2-G3]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 2), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Congruent Figures

**Description:**This lesson is an introduction to a unit about congruent shapes. Students will begin by listening to a book about shapes. They will then complete several hands-on activities, including sorting shapes, using their bodies to form congruent shapes, and using activities on the Internet to practice forming congruent shapes.

**Title:** It's Your Birthday, Dr. Seuss!

**Description:**
This lesson plan is intended to be used during the month of March when the class is preparing to celebrate Dr. Seuss Day. After listening to and reading different stories by Dr. Seuss, the students have opportunities to compare and contrast story elements through critical thinking and Venn diagrams.
**Standard(s): **

[ELA2015] (3) 3: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. [RL.3.3]

**Subject:**Character Education (K - 12), or English Language Arts (1 - 3), or Mathematics (K - 2), or Technology Education (K - 5)

**Title:**It's Your Birthday, Dr. Seuss!

**Description:**This lesson plan is intended to be used during the month of March when the class is preparing to celebrate Dr. Seuss Day. After listening to and reading different stories by Dr. Seuss, the students have opportunities to compare and contrast story elements through critical thinking and Venn diagrams.

**Title:** Creepy Caterpillars to Beautiful Butterflies

**Description:**
Students will explore the life cycle of a butterfly using a website and observations of caterpillar metamorphosis. This lesson will incorporate science, mathematics, language arts, and art.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (2), or Mathematics (K - 1), or Credit Recovery Science (2), or Science (3), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Creepy Caterpillars to Beautiful Butterflies

**Description:**Students will explore the life cycle of a butterfly using a website and observations of caterpillar metamorphosis. This lesson will incorporate science, mathematics, language arts, and art.

**Title:** Graphing M

**Description:**
During this lesson, students will learn how to create a graph using M&M's. Students will compare the different numbers of M&M's by creating different math problems. Students will practice working different math problems on the Internet. Experience from this activity will be used to participate in the voting process.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 2), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Graphing M

**Description:**During this lesson, students will learn how to create a graph using M&M's. Students will compare the different numbers of M&M's by creating different math problems. Students will practice working different math problems on the Internet. Experience from this activity will be used to participate in the voting process.

**Title:** What Can We Learn From Pigs?

**Description:**
This thematic language arts lesson uses a variety of beginning reading books about pigs to help special education/early elementary students learn about character traits and concepts. The wide use of graphic organizers introduces beginning readers to early reading strategies.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Character Education (K - 12), or English Language Arts (1 - 2), or Mathematics (1 - 2)

**Title:**What Can We Learn From Pigs?

**Description:**This thematic language arts lesson uses a variety of beginning reading books about pigs to help special education/early elementary students learn about character traits and concepts. The wide use of graphic organizers introduces beginning readers to early reading strategies.

**Title:** Animal Cracker Sorting

**Description:**
In this lesson students will be given the opportunity to practice using mathematical vocabulary to describe a set of data. Following data collection students will also create a graph using the computer.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 2), or Technology Education (K - 2)

**Title:**Animal Cracker Sorting

**Description:**In this lesson students will be given the opportunity to practice using mathematical vocabulary to describe a set of data. Following data collection students will also create a graph using the computer.

**Title:** Glorious Sunflowers

**Description:**
In this lesson students will identify, measure and graph seeds and other characteristics of sunflowers and write descriptive and narrative paragraphs about sunflowers.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (2), or Mathematics (K - 3)

**Title:**Glorious Sunflowers

**Description:**In this lesson students will identify, measure and graph seeds and other characteristics of sunflowers and write descriptive and narrative paragraphs about sunflowers.

**Title:** What do Plants Need?

**Description:**
In this lesson, students will understand that in order to grow healthy plants, soil, water, light, and air must be provided. Students will use math skills such as measurement and science process skills such as observation, comparing, and recording data.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics (K - 3), or Credit Recovery Science (3), or Science (2)

**Title:**What do Plants Need?

**Description:**In this lesson, students will understand that in order to grow healthy plants, soil, water, light, and air must be provided. Students will use math skills such as measurement and science process skills such as observation, comparing, and recording data.

**Title:** Numbers and Me

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on the uses of numbers. Students identify and use numbers in a real-life setting and interpret survey data.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (5) 19: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (^{1}/_{2}, ^{1}/_{4}, ^{1}/_{8}).
Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. [5-MD2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Numbers and Me

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on the uses of numbers. Students identify and use numbers in a real-life setting and interpret survey data.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5

**Title:** Information Represented Graphically

**Description:**
In this three-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they analyze information represented graphically. Students are asked to discuss, describe, read, and write about the graphs and the information they contain.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 18: Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. [7-SP2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Information Represented Graphically

**Description:**In this three-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they analyze information represented graphically. Students are asked to discuss, describe, read, and write about the graphs and the information they contain.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Helping Ladybug Hide with Arrows and Angles

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students use a Java applet to hide a ladybug under a leaf. This requires experimentation, planning, and understanding of spatial relationships and visual memory.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 21: Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares; describe the shares using the words *halves, fourths, and quarters*; and use the phrases *half of, fourth of, and quarter of*. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. [1-G3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Helping Ladybug Hide with Arrows and Angles

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students use a Java applet to hide a ladybug under a leaf. This requires experimentation, planning, and understanding of spatial relationships and visual memory.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** My Pet

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students develop and use spatial relationships and spatial memory by creating a map of a pet. The students use visual and spatial skills, measure with nonstandard units, and describe '' trips'' around their pet using directional and positional words.
**Standard(s): **

[SS2010] LWT1 (1) 8: Identify land masses, bodies of water, and other physical features on maps and globes.

**Subject:**Mathematics,Social Studies

**Title:**My Pet

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students develop and use spatial relationships and spatial memory by creating a map of a pet. The students use visual and spatial skills, measure with nonstandard units, and describe '' trips'' around their pet using directional and positional words.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Classroom Paper

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students gather and graph information about their classroom paper use over a period of several days and then interpret graphical information and use the data as a basis for future planning.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (5) 24: Represent real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. [5-G2]

**Subject:**Mathematics,Science

**Title:**Classroom Paper

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students gather and graph information about their classroom paper use over a period of several days and then interpret graphical information and use the data as a basis for future planning.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5

**Title:** Freckle Face

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, initiates the development of skills in collecting and recording data. Students collect data about a partner s face and tally the data from the whole class. They learn the convention for displaying a set of five using tally marks. Students then create a pictograph and pose and answer questions about the data set. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Freckle Face

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, initiates the development of skills in collecting and recording data. Students collect data about a partner s face and tally the data from the whole class. They learn the convention for displaying a set of five using tally marks. Students then create a pictograph and pose and answer questions about the data set. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Calculating Patterns: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, is designed as a summative assessment of students understanding of patterns. It measures their ability to create, extend, and interpret patterns in multiple ways.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Calculating Patterns: Looking Back and Moving Forward

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, is designed as a summative assessment of students understanding of patterns. It measures their ability to create, extend, and interpret patterns in multiple ways.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** The Length of My Feet

**Description:**
This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, focuses students attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 16: Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. [2-MD3]

**Subject:**Language Arts,Mathematics

**Title:**The Length of My Feet

**Description:**This lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, focuses students attention on the attributes of length and develops their knowledge of and skill in using nonstandard units of measurement. It provides practice with and remediation of the measurable attributes of length. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Plastic Packaging

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students gather and graph data about plastic packaging and recycling and then interpret the graph to assist in developing a recycling plan.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 18: Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. [3-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics,Science

**Title:**Plastic Packaging

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students gather and graph data about plastic packaging and recycling and then interpret the graph to assist in developing a recycling plan.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5

**Title:** Sampling Rocks

**Description:**
The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is for students to learn about sampling through an investigation of rocks found in the schoolyard. In this lesson, students collect and analyze a sampling of rocks from the schoolyard. They sort the collected rocks by characteristics such as size, weight, and color, to see if any generalizations can be made about the types of rocks that can be found in the schoolyard.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 19: Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. [1-G1]

**Subject:**Mathematics, Science

**Title:**Sampling Rocks

**Description:**The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is for students to learn about sampling through an investigation of rocks found in the schoolyard. In this lesson, students collect and analyze a sampling of rocks from the schoolyard. They sort the collected rocks by characteristics such as size, weight, and color, to see if any generalizations can be made about the types of rocks that can be found in the schoolyard.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Science NetLinks

**Grade Span:**K,1,2

**Title:** Look at Me

**Description:**
In this six-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students collect data and display it with tally marks, pictographs, bar graphs, and glyphs. Students explore logical and numerical relationships, review one-to-one correspondence, explore patterns and the relationships between numbers, and model addition sentences with missing addends.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Look at Me

**Description:**In this six-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students collect data and display it with tally marks, pictographs, bar graphs, and glyphs. Students explore logical and numerical relationships, review one-to-one correspondence, explore patterns and the relationships between numbers, and model addition sentences with missing addends.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Counting Back

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students count to compare plates of fish-shaped crackers and then record the comparison in vertical and horizontal format. They apply their skills of reasoning and problem-solving during this lesson in several ways. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Counting Back

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students count to compare plates of fish-shaped crackers and then record the comparison in vertical and horizontal format. They apply their skills of reasoning and problem-solving during this lesson in several ways. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Pyramid Power

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students make sets of a given number, explore relationships between numbers, and write numbers that enumerate how many elements are in a group. They make and record sets of one more and one less than a given number. They have the opportunity to apply their reasoning and communication skills in this lesson.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Health,Mathematics

**Title:**Pyramid Power

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students make sets of a given number, explore relationships between numbers, and write numbers that enumerate how many elements are in a group. They make and record sets of one more and one less than a given number. They have the opportunity to apply their reasoning and communication skills in this lesson.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Counting Back and Counting On

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students model subtraction with connecting cubes while the teacher reads to them from counting books. Then, students make a train of connecting cubes and write in vertical and horizontal format the differences suggested by adding to and subtracting from the train, one cube at a time. Finally, students record in their learning portfolio for the unit a train showing one cube being taken away and record the difference in vertical and horizontal format. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Language Arts,Mathematics

**Title:**Counting Back and Counting On

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students model subtraction with connecting cubes while the teacher reads to them from counting books. Then, students make a train of connecting cubes and write in vertical and horizontal format the differences suggested by adding to and subtracting from the train, one cube at a time. Finally, students record in their learning portfolio for the unit a train showing one cube being taken away and record the difference in vertical and horizontal format. Several pieces of literature appropriate for use with this lesson are suggested.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Judge and Jury

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on the uses of numbers. The activities use the theme of games to develop concepts of measurement and statistics. Students are asked to measure distances using standard and nonstandard units and to record their measurement in various tables. Then use descriptive statistics to report the results.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Judge and Jury

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they focus on the uses of numbers. The activities use the theme of games to develop concepts of measurement and statistics. Students are asked to measure distances using standard and nonstandard units and to record their measurement in various tables. Then use descriptive statistics to report the results.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Shirts Full of Buttons

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore subtraction in the comparative mode by answering questions such as How many more? and How many less? as they match sets of buttons. They also make and discuss bar graphs based on the number of buttons they are wearing.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Shirts Full of Buttons

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students explore subtraction in the comparative mode by answering questions such as How many more? and How many less? as they match sets of buttons. They also make and discuss bar graphs based on the number of buttons they are wearing.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Eye to Eye

**Description:**
In this Illuminations lesson, students learn to pose mathematical questions about themselves and their surroundings through class and small group discussion. They gather data about eye color from their classmates and another group of students within their school. With this data, they then compare data sets and refine questions.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Eye to Eye

**Description:**In this Illuminations lesson, students learn to pose mathematical questions about themselves and their surroundings through class and small group discussion. They gather data about eye color from their classmates and another group of students within their school. With this data, they then compare data sets and refine questions.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Bar Graph Investigations

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students apply what they know about comparison subtraction by constructing bar graphs and using them to answer questions. They conduct a survey to gather data and then complete a bar graph. They also use the data to generate a bar graph using a computer.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Bar Graph Investigations

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students apply what they know about comparison subtraction by constructing bar graphs and using them to answer questions. They conduct a survey to gather data and then complete a bar graph. They also use the data to generate a bar graph using a computer.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Mathematics and Environmental Concerns: Unit Overview

**Description:**
In this five-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. The activities in these lessons focus on connections between mathematics and environmental concerns. They are designed to make students aware of various materials that people ordinarily use and discard, to increase their knowledge of the numbers of material that people use and to devise plans to use materials more conservatively.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics,Science

**Title:**Mathematics and Environmental Concerns: Unit Overview

**Description:**In this five-lesson unit, from Illuminations, students participate in activities in which they investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. The activities in these lessons focus on connections between mathematics and environmental concerns. They are designed to make students aware of various materials that people ordinarily use and discard, to increase their knowledge of the numbers of material that people use and to devise plans to use materials more conservatively.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Graphing Trash Material

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students then work to create an action plan for recycling.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Mathematics,Science

**Title:**Graphing Trash Material

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students investigate data in connection with recyclable materials and develop plans to help the environment. Students then work to create an action plan for recycling.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Super Bowl Scavenger Hunt

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students bring home an activity sheet designed to have families examine some enjoyable (and, sometimes, obscure) questions using mathematics during the Super Bowl game. The questions require that the families make observations about the game. Students distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information to be used in problem solving.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 18: Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. [3-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Super Bowl Scavenger Hunt

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students bring home an activity sheet designed to have families examine some enjoyable (and, sometimes, obscure) questions using mathematics during the Super Bowl game. The questions require that the families make observations about the game. Students distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information to be used in problem solving.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Representing Data

**Description:**
This unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, focuses on the application of mathematics to real-world situations. Students must deal with data to complete an organized chart for the purpose of transferring information to a graph or for generalizing a rule. The unit includes an individual activity for four different levels, 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (5) 19: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (^{1}/_{2}, ^{1}/_{4}, ^{1}/_{8}).
Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. [5-MD2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Representing Data

**Description:**This unit of four lessons, from Illuminations, focuses on the application of mathematics to real-world situations. Students must deal with data to complete an organized chart for the purpose of transferring information to a graph or for generalizing a rule. The unit includes an individual activity for four different levels, 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Skin Weight

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students work with data to complete an organized chart for the purpose of transferring information to a graph or for the purpose of generalizing a rule.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (5) 19: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (^{1}/_{2}, ^{1}/_{4}, ^{1}/_{8}).
Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. [5-MD2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Skin Weight

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students work with data to complete an organized chart for the purpose of transferring information to a graph or for the purpose of generalizing a rule.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Up on Top

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students generate bar graphs. Posing and answering questions using the graphs gives students an opportunity to apply their reasoning and communication skills. They also consider whether a given category is likely, certain, or impossible.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (2) 23: Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [2-MD10]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Up on Top

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students generate bar graphs. Posing and answering questions using the graphs gives students an opportunity to apply their reasoning and communication skills. They also consider whether a given category is likely, certain, or impossible.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** The Clucking Chicken

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students choose meals from a menu and then construct a box plot. They use the plot to identify the mean, mode, median, and range of the data set.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 18: Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. [3-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**The Clucking Chicken

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students choose meals from a menu and then construct a box plot. They use the plot to identify the mean, mode, median, and range of the data set.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5

**Title:** The Eyes Have It

**Description:**
In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students collect data about the eye color of class members. They create bar graphs with several classifications of data. They pose and answer questions about the data by looking at the graph and then find the range and mode.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (3) 18: Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. [3-MD3]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**The Eyes Have It

**Description:**In this lesson, one of a multi-part unit from Illuminations, students collect data about the eye color of class members. They create bar graphs with several classifications of data. They pose and answer questions about the data by looking at the graph and then find the range and mode.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2

**Title:** Money, Money, Money

**Digital Tool:**
BrainPOP **Web Address URL:**
http://www.brainpopjr.com/math/money/countingcoins/ **Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]**Digital Tool Description:** The BrainPOP Jr. video helps aid in teaching the use of coins, classifying coins, and coins worth. It is a great asset for students to see how coins relate to real life uses. This can be used to present coins or make it an extension to a lesson for better understanding.

**Title:**Money, Money, Money

**Digital Tool:**BrainPOP

**Digital Tool Description:**The BrainPOP Jr. video helps aid in teaching the use of coins, classifying coins, and coins worth. It is a great asset for students to see how coins relate to real life uses. This can be used to present coins or make it an extension to a lesson for better understanding.

**Title:** Who Represents You

**Description:**
Use three Web sites to gather data about the people that live in your home state and those who represent you in Congress. Then use an online tool to make comparing this information easy! Included in an OurStory module from Smithsonian's National Museum of American History entitled Winning the Vote for Women, this activity is designed to help children and adults enjoy exploring history together through the use of children's literature, everyday objects, and hands-on activities. National Museum of American History
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (1) 18: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. [1-MD4]

**Subject:**Educational Technology

**Title:**Who Represents You

**Description:**Use three Web sites to gather data about the people that live in your home state and those who represent you in Congress. Then use an online tool to make comparing this information easy! Included in an OurStory module from Smithsonian's National Museum of American History entitled Winning the Vote for Women, this activity is designed to help children and adults enjoy exploring history together through the use of children's literature, everyday objects, and hands-on activities. National Museum of American History

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Smithsonian

**Grade Span:**1,2,3,4

**Title:** Circle Grapher

**Description:**
This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to create a customized circle graph as well as display pre-set circle graphs. They can choose from one of 3 predetermined data sets, or input their own data into the applet. In addition to the circle graph, a table of the data is also included.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] AL1 (9-12) 41: Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). [S-ID1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Circle Grapher

**Description:**This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to create a customized circle graph as well as display pre-set circle graphs. They can choose from one of 3 predetermined data sets, or input their own data into the applet. In addition to the circle graph, a table of the data is also included.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12