**Title:** Puzzling Pangaea

**Description:**
In this lesson students will work collaboratively to research information in order to prove or disprove if a super continent ever existed. Students will create a model of Pangaea to show how their research findings ‘connect' in a puzzle format. Students will conduct a survey to find out their peers opinion of Pangaea and communicate the results in graphs.
**Standard(s): **

[TC2] (3-5) 9: Use technology tools to organize, interpret, and display data.

**Subject:**Mathematics (7), or Credit Recovery Science (5), or Science (6), or Technology Education (3 - 5)

**Title:**Puzzling Pangaea

**Description:**In this lesson students will work collaboratively to research information in order to prove or disprove if a super continent ever existed. Students will create a model of Pangaea to show how their research findings ‘connect' in a puzzle format. Students will conduct a survey to find out their peers opinion of Pangaea and communicate the results in graphs.

**Title:** It’s in the Bag!

**Description:**
It’s in the Bag will allow students to explore basic principles of probability. Students will investigation the likelihood of a certain color cube coming out of a bag. Then proceed to write word problems involving the plausible outcomes.
This lesson plan was created by exemplary Alabama Math Teachers through the AMSTI project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 22: Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. [7-SP6]

**Subject:**Mathematics (7)

**Title:**It’s in the Bag!

**Description:**It’s in the Bag will allow students to explore basic principles of probability. Students will investigation the likelihood of a certain color cube coming out of a bag. Then proceed to write word problems involving the plausible outcomes. This lesson plan was created by exemplary Alabama Math Teachers through the AMSTI project.

**Title:** What's Your Guess? (Probability)

**Description:**
This lesson will allow the student to experience a series of informal comparisons, The student will explore the chances of various outcomes of an event. The student will use vocabulary associated with probability.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 21: Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around ^{1}/_{2} indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. [7-SP5]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (3), or Mathematics (7), or Technology Education (3 - 5)

**Title:**What's Your Guess? (Probability)

**Description:**This lesson will allow the student to experience a series of informal comparisons, The student will explore the chances of various outcomes of an event. The student will use vocabulary associated with probability.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** Don't Compound the Problem

**Description:**
Students will be able to determine the probability of a compound event. Drawing on their knowledge of simple probability to find the probability of more complex outcomes. Students will create a poster, PowerPoint, booklet, or foldable to display the process of calculating a compound probability.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 24: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. [7-SP8]

**Subject:**Mathematics (7)

**Title:**Don't Compound the Problem

**Description:**Students will be able to determine the probability of a compound event. Drawing on their knowledge of simple probability to find the probability of more complex outcomes. Students will create a poster, PowerPoint, booklet, or foldable to display the process of calculating a compound probability.

**Title:** Maybe - Maybe Not (Probability Introduction)

**Description:**
This is a beginning lesson on the concept of probability. Through a series of informal comparisons, the student will explore the chances of various outcomes of an event. The student will use vocabulary associated with probability.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 24: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. [7-SP8]

**Subject:**English Language Arts (3), or Mathematics (7), or Technology Education (3 - 5)

**Title:**Maybe - Maybe Not (Probability Introduction)

**Description:**This is a beginning lesson on the concept of probability. Through a series of informal comparisons, the student will explore the chances of various outcomes of an event. The student will use vocabulary associated with probability.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science University, GEMS-U Project.

**Title:** What Are the Chances?

**Description:**
Students will use technology to investigate probability from basic terms to the theoretical probability of events.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 24: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. [7-SP8]

**Subject:**Mathematics (7), or Technology Education (6 - 8)

**Title:**What Are the Chances?

**Description:**Students will use technology to investigate probability from basic terms to the theoretical probability of events.This lesson plan was created as a result of the Girls Engaged in Math and Science, GEMS Project funded by the Malone Family Foundation.

**Title:** Dice Roll Project

**Description:**
This project is a fun way for students to observe the integration of a probability lesson with spreadsheet software. Students will record 36 rolls of a pair of dice. After they record their data, students will manually calculate the mean, median, mode and range. Students will then observe how quickly a computer can do those same calculations and many more things with that same data. Students will also compare experimental outcomes to the theoretical outcome.
**Standard(s): **

**Subject:**Mathematics (7 - 12), or Technology Education (9 - 12)

**Title:**Dice Roll Project

**Description:**This project is a fun way for students to observe the integration of a probability lesson with spreadsheet software. Students will record 36 rolls of a pair of dice. After they record their data, students will manually calculate the mean, median, mode and range. Students will then observe how quickly a computer can do those same calculations and many more things with that same data. Students will also compare experimental outcomes to the theoretical outcome.

**Title:** Boxing Up

**Description:**
In this lesson, from Illuminations, students explore the relationship between theoretical and experimental probabilities. They use an interactive box model that allows them to simulate standard probability experiments such as flipping a coin or rolling a die.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] ALT (9-12) 41: (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [S-MD6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Boxing Up

**Description:**In this lesson, from Illuminations, students explore the relationship between theoretical and experimental probabilities. They use an interactive box model that allows them to simulate standard probability experiments such as flipping a coin or rolling a die.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**6,7,8

**Title:** Birthday Paradox

**Description:**
This Illuminations lesson demonstrates the birthday paradox, using it as a springboard into a unit on probability. Students use the TI-83 graphing calculator to run a Monte Carlo simulation with the birthday paradox and engage in a graphical analysis of the birthday-problem function.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] PRE (9-12) 51: (+) Calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution. [S-MD2]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Birthday Paradox

**Description:**This Illuminations lesson demonstrates the birthday paradox, using it as a springboard into a unit on probability. Students use the TI-83 graphing calculator to run a Monte Carlo simulation with the birthday paradox and engage in a graphical analysis of the birthday-problem function.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**6,7,8,9,10,11,12

**Title:** Explorations with Chance

**Description:**
In this lesson, from Illuminations, students analyze the fairness of certain games by examining the probabilities of the outcomes. The explorations provide opportunities for the learning phases of predicting results, playing the games, and calculating probability ratios.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] ALT (9-12) 41: (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [S-MD6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Explorations with Chance

**Description:**In this lesson, from Illuminations, students analyze the fairness of certain games by examining the probabilities of the outcomes. The explorations provide opportunities for the learning phases of predicting results, playing the games, and calculating probability ratios.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**9,10,11,12

**Title:** Stick or Switch?

**Description:**
This lesson, from Illuminations, presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors, which reveals no prize, and then asks if you wish to stick or switch. Which choice gives you the best chance to win? Students explore different approaches to this problem including guesses, experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical models.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] PRE (9-12) 50: (+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions. [S-MD1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Stick or Switch?

**Description:**This lesson, from Illuminations, presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors, which reveals no prize, and then asks if you wish to stick or switch. Which choice gives you the best chance to win? Students explore different approaches to this problem including guesses, experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical models.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**6,7,8,9,10,11,12

**Title:** Sticks and Stones Demo

**Description:**
This student interactive, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to generate random throws for the game '' Sticks and Stones.'' In the game, three sticks are tossed and a player moves his or her marker according to how the sticks land.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] PRE (9-12) 50: (+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions. [S-MD1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Sticks and Stones Demo

**Description:**This student interactive, from an Illuminations lesson, allows students to generate random throws for the game '' Sticks and Stones.'' In the game, three sticks are tossed and a player moves his or her marker according to how the sticks land.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Sticks and Stones

**Description:**
In this Illuminations lesson, students play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game Throw Sticks, which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] PRE (9-12) 50: (+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions. [S-MD1]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Sticks and Stones

**Description:**In this Illuminations lesson, students play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game Throw Sticks, which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** The Game of SKUNK

**Description:**
In this lesson, from Illuminations, students practice decision-making skills while playing a dice game called Skunk. This allows them to develop a better understanding of mathematical probability and of the concept of choice versus chance.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 24: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. [7-SP8]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**The Game of SKUNK

**Description:**In this lesson, from Illuminations, students practice decision-making skills while playing a dice game called Skunk. This allows them to develop a better understanding of mathematical probability and of the concept of choice versus chance.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**6,7,8

**Title:** How useful is probability?

**Digital Tool:**
What Happens If You Guess? TED-Ed Video **Web Address URL:**
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3V2omKRX9gc **Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 24: Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. [7-SP8]**Digital Tool Description:** This animated video describes how probability plays a role in everyday choices and demonstrates how beneficial guessing would be on a multiple choice test.

**Title:**How useful is probability?

**Digital Tool:**What Happens If You Guess? TED-Ed Video

**Digital Tool Description:**This animated video describes how probability plays a role in everyday choices and demonstrates how beneficial guessing would be on a multiple choice test.

**Title:** Marble Mania Facilitator Page

**Description:**
This Science NetLinks Afterschool activity introduces kids to probability and chance with a fun interactive. By flipping coins and pulling marbles out of a virtual bag, afterschool facilitators will help students begin to develop a basic understanding of probabilities, how they are determined, and how the outcome of an experiment can be affected by the number of times it is conducted.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 23: Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. [7-SP7]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Marble Mania Facilitator Page

**Description:**This Science NetLinks Afterschool activity introduces kids to probability and chance with a fun interactive. By flipping coins and pulling marbles out of a virtual bag, afterschool facilitators will help students begin to develop a basic understanding of probabilities, how they are determined, and how the outcome of an experiment can be affected by the number of times it is conducted.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Science NetLinks

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Marble Mania Student Page

**Description:**
This Science NetLinks Afterschool activity introduces kids to probability and chance with a fun interactive. By pulling marbles out of a virtual bag, students begin to develop a basic understanding of probabilities, how they are determined, and how the outcome of an experiment can be affected by the number of times it is conducted.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] (7) 23: Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. [7-SP7]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Marble Mania Student Page

**Description:**This Science NetLinks Afterschool activity introduces kids to probability and chance with a fun interactive. By pulling marbles out of a virtual bag, students begin to develop a basic understanding of probabilities, how they are determined, and how the outcome of an experiment can be affected by the number of times it is conducted.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Science NetLinks

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8

**Title:** Random Drawing Tool

**Description:**
This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to explore the relationship between theoretical and experimental probabilities. Students use this '' box model'' as a statistical device to simulate standard probability experiments such as flipping a coin or rolling a die.
**Standard(s): **

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Random Drawing Tool

**Description:**This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to explore the relationship between theoretical and experimental probabilities. Students use this '' box model'' as a statistical device to simulate standard probability experiments such as flipping a coin or rolling a die.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

**Title:** Adjustable Spinner

**Description:**
This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to create their own spinners and examine the outcomes given a specified number of spins. Students learn that experimental probabilities differ according to the characteristics of the model.
**Standard(s): **

[MA2015] ALT (9-12) 41: (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [S-MD6]

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Adjustable Spinner

**Description:**This student interactive, from Illuminations, allows students to create their own spinners and examine the outcomes given a specified number of spins. Students learn that experimental probabilities differ according to the characteristics of the model.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**K,PreK,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

**Title:** Fire

**Description:**
In this student interactive, from Illuminations, students can see the results of a fire if a forest is densely planted in a rectangular grid. Students are able to choose a starting place for the fire and enter the probability that a given tree will burn.
**Standard(s): **

**Subject:**Mathematics

**Title:**Fire

**Description:**In this student interactive, from Illuminations, students can see the results of a fire if a forest is densely planted in a rectangular grid. Students are able to choose a starting place for the fire and enter the probability that a given tree will burn.

**Thinkfinity Partner:**Illuminations

**Grade Span:**3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12