This module provides 8th grade middle school students a basic understanding of the atomic structure. With the knowledge evolution of the atom structure, modern sciences and technologies, particularly nanoscience and nanotechnology, have been revolutionarily advanced. In this module development the structure of an atom and its constituents will be demonstrated with the help of the 3D visualization and hands-on activities.
In this activity, students work in groups to draw molecules showing the individual atoms in a chemical formula.
This activity was created as a result of the ALEX Resource Development Summit.
This activity can be used as an introduction to atomic structure. Students will be given several sealed envelopes and asked to use their senses to identify the objects inside. Students aren't allowed to open the envelopes, but they may use any of their senses to figure out what is inside. The teacher can compare this activity with the discovery of the atom and its structure.
This activity is a result of the ALEX Resource Development Summit.
This activity should be used as an Engage activity. The students will recall a jigsaw puzzle has pieces that connect in a certain way. Each piece of the puzzle is unique. The pieces fit together by sharing tabs with other pieces. Once the puzzle has been completed, it looks very different from all the pieces that were used to create it. Like the pieces of a puzzle, atoms can join together and form a compound by sharing electrons.
This activity results from the ALEX Resource Development Summit.
During this before activity, the students' prior knowledge will be assessed and activated by completing an ABC brainstorm of matter using the Alphabet Organizer tool. The digital tool allows the student to create an alphabet chart or book using words and pictures. The students can have voice and choice by choosing to create an alphabet chart with five words per letter or with a word, note, and picture for each letter. When the project is complete, the students can save their work, print their work, or share their work through an e-mail link. This web tool requires a computer with internet access and Adobe Flash Player.
This activity was created as a result of the GAP Resource Summit.
In this lesson, students discuss the meaning of “chemistry” and “matter.” Students investigate a drop of water hanging from a dropper and drops of water beading up on wax paper. They also look at a molecular animation that models the motion of water molecules. Students are introduced to the idea that matter is made up of extremely tiny particles that are attracted to one another.
In this lesson, students add food coloring to hot and cold water to see whether heating or cooling affects the speed of water molecules. Students watch molecular model animations to see the effect of heating and cooling on the molecules of a liquid. Students will also draw their own molecular model.
In this lesson, students will look closely at the parts of a thermometer. After placing a thermometer in hot and cold water, students will look at molecular model animations of the liquid in a thermometer. Students will then draw a model of the molecules of a thermometer after it has been placed in hot and then cold water.
In this lesson, students will see a demonstration with a metal ball and ring showing that heat causes atoms to spread a little further apart. They will also see that cooling solid causes the atoms to get a little closer together. The same rules they have discovered about liquids also apply to solids. Based on their observations students will describe, on the molecular level, how heating and cooling affect the motion of atoms in a solid.
In this lesson, students will focus on the first 20 elements of the periodic table. Students will first look at a diagram and animation to understand the basic pattern of the arrangement of electrons on energy levels around an atom. Students will be given cards with information about the electrons and energy levels for each of the first 20 atoms. They will try to correctly match cards with each element.
Students will be able to interpret the information given in the periodic table to describe the arrangement of electrons on the energy levels around an atom.
In this lesson, students will put a static charge on a strip of plastic by pulling it between their fingers. They will see that the plastic is attracted to their fingers. Students will be introduced to the idea that rubbing the strip with their fingers caused electrons to move from their skin to the plastic giving the plastic a negative charge and their skin a positive charge. Through these activities, students will be introduced to some of the characteristics of electrons, protons, and neutrons, which make up atoms.
Students will be able to explain, in terms of electrons and protons, why a charged object is attracted or repelled by another charged object. They will also be able to explain why a charged object can even be attracted to an uncharged object. Students will also be able to explain that the attraction between positive protons and negative electrons holds an atom together.
In this lesson, students will begin to look closely at the periodic table. They will be introduced to the basic information given for the elements in most periodic tables: the name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass for each element. Students will focus on the first 20 elements. They will try to correctly match cards with information about an element to each of the first 20 elements. Students will then watch several videos of some interesting chemical reactions involving some of these elements. Students will identify different atoms by the number of protons in the nucleus and realize that the number of electrons equals the number of protons in a neutral atom. They will also be able to explain the meaning of atomic number and atomic mass.
In this lesson, students will look at animations and refer to the energy level models they have been using to make drawings of the process of covalent bonding. Students will consider why atoms bond to form molecules like H2 (hydrogen), H2O (water), O2 (oxygen), CH4 (methane), and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
Students will be able to explain that attraction between the protons and electrons of two atoms cause them to bond. Students will be able to draw a model of the covalent bonds between the atoms in H2 (hydrogen), H2O (water), O2 (oxygen), CH4 (methane), and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
In this lesson, students will look at animations and make drawings of the ionic bonding of sodium chloride (NaCl). Students will see that both ionic and covalent bonding start with the attractions of protons and electrons between different atoms. But in ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from one atom to the other and not shared like in covalent bonding. Students will use Styrofoam balls to make models of the ionic bonding in sodium chloride (salt).
Students will be able to explain the process of the formation of ions and ionic bonds.
In this lesson, students will be introduced to the basics of Lewis dot diagrams as they compare the energy level models to dot diagrams. Along with the teacher, they will review the Lewis dot diagrams for a few common covalent and ionic compounds.
Students will be able to interpret and draw Lewis dot diagrams for individual atoms and both covalent and ionic compounds.
In this lesson, students learn the meaning of the term element and discover that all elements on Earth were formed in stars. They examine the structure of atoms and discover that scientists' understanding of this structure has changed over time--and will likely be refined even further. Lastly, they begin to explore the sometimes strange arrangement and behavior of electrons and to connect these characteristics to the chemical properties of elements. This activity is the second of three lessons. The first, The Periodic Table of the Elements, explored the origin of the periodic table. The third, Repeating Patterns: The Shape of the Periodic Table, shows how quantum electron structure determines the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.
This lesson--the third in a series of three lesson plans about the Periodic Table of Elements--explains why the elements exhibit periodicity, why the periodic table of elements is shaped the way it is, and how we are able to predict the characteristics of elements yet to be discovered or created. Students create electron configuration diagrams that describe the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus. This lesson is the third of three lessons and is intended as an enhancement activity following the completion of the first two lessons. The first lesson, The Periodic Table of the Elements, explored the origin of the periodic table. The second lesson, The Strange World of the Electron, described the structure of the atom.
The periodic table is an essential part of any chemistry course. Its simple chart-like appearance belies the wealth of information that it contains. In this lesson, students learn about the origin of the modern periodic table of elements and explore an interactive version that teaches them how to extract information from it. This activity is the first of three lessons. The Strange World of the Electron and Repeating Patterns: The Shape of the Periodic Table will help to further students' understanding of this powerful tool.
An atom is a tiny particle in matter, and atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Some matter, like your body or your book, is made of lots of different kinds of atoms, but elements are made up of only one kind of atom.
The classroom resource provides a video that will explain atoms and how they are made of smaller particles called protons, electrons, and neutrons. This resource can provide background information for students before they construct their own models and/or carry out their own investigations. There is also a short test that can be used to assess students' understanding.
The periodic table is a chart that scientists use to organize the elements. The chart shows each element's name and symbol, the number of protons in its nucleus, and its characteristics. The elements are listed in order by atomic number.
The classroom resource provides a video that will introduce students to the elements organized by the periodic table. This resource can provide background information for students before they create their own models. There is also a short test that can be used to assess students' understanding.