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# Classroom Resources

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 1 Lesson 10: Building an App: Color Sleuth

This lesson attempts to walk students through the iterative development process of building an app (basically) from scratch that involves the use of if statements. Following an imaginary conversation between two characters - Alexis and Michael - students follow the problem solving and program design decisions they make for each step of constructing the app. Along the way, they decide when and how to break things down into functions, and of course, discuss the logic necessary to make a simple game.

The last step - writing code that executes an end-of-game condition - students must do on their own. How they decide to use if statements to end the game will require some creativity. The suggested condition - first to score 10 points - is subtly tricky and can be written in many different ways.

At the conclusion of the lesson, there is three practice Create PT-style questions as well as resources explaining the connection between this lesson and the actual Create PT. Depending on how you use these materials they can easily add an additional day to this lesson.

Students will be able to:
- write code to implement solutions to problems from pseudocode or description.
- follow the iterative development process of a collaboratively created program.
- develop and write code for conditional expressions to incorporate into an existing program.
- write a large program from scratch when given directions for each step.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 11: While Loops

This lesson demonstrates how a slight manipulation of a conditional statement can allow for the creation of a new and powerful tool in constructing programs, a while loop. Students are introduced to a while loop by analyzing the flow chart of a conditional statement in which the "true" branch leads back to the original condition. Students design their own flowcharts to represent a real-world situation that could be represented as a while loop, and they learn how to recognize common looping structures, most notably infinite loops. Students then move to App Lab, creating a while loop that runs exactly some predetermined number of times. While learning about creating while loops, students will be introduced to many of the common mistakes early programmers make with while loops and will be asked to debug small programs. They finally progress to putting if statements inside a while loop to count the number of times an event occurs while repeating the same action. This activity will recall the need for counter variables and foreshadows their further use in the following lesson.

Students will be able to:
- explain that a while loop continues to run while a boolean condition remains true.
- translate a real-life activity with repeated components into a form that could be represented by a while loop.
- analyze a while loop to determine if the initial condition will be met, how many times the loop will run, and if the loop will ever terminate.
- write programs that use while loops in a variety of contexts.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 12: Loops and Simulations

In this lesson, students gain more practice using while loops as they develop a simulation that repeatedly flips coins until certain conditions are met. The lesson begins with an unplugged activity in which students flip a coin until they get five heads in total, and then again until they get three heads in a row. They will then compete to predict the highest outcome in the class for each statistic. This activity motivates the programming component of the lesson in which students develop a program that allows them to simulate this experiment for higher numbers of heads and longer streaks.

Students will be able to:
- use a while loop in a program to repeatedly call a block of code.
- use variables, iteration, and conditional logic within a loop to record the results of a repeated process.
- develop a simulation of a simple real-world phenomenon.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 13: Introduction to Arrays

This lesson introduces arrays as a means of storing lists of information within a program. The class begins by highlighting the difficulties that arise when trying to store lists of information in a variable. Students then watch a short video introducing arrays and a subset of the operations that can be performed with them. Students will work in Code Studio for the remainder of the class as they practice using arrays in their programs. At the conclusion of the sequence, students build a simple app which can be used to store and cycle through a list of their favorite things. In the next lesson, students will continue working with a version of this app that can display images and not just text strings.

Students will be able to:
- identify an array as a data structure used to store lists of information in programs.
- create arrays and access information stored within them using an index.
- manipulate an array using the append, insert, and remove operations.
- account for the fact that JavaScript arrays are zero-indexed when using them in a program.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 14: Building an App: Image Scroller

Students will extend the My Favorite Things app they built in the previous lesson so that it now manages and displays a collection of images and responds to key events. Students are introduced to the practice of refactoring code in order to keep programs consistent and remove redundancies when adding new functionality. As part of learning to use key events, students are shown that event handlers pass a parameter which contains additional information about the event. This lesson also serves as further practice at using arrays in programs.

Students will be able to:
- use an array to maintain a collection of data in a program.
- create apps that allow user interaction through key events.
- refactor code in order to appropriately incorporate new functionality while maintaining readability and consistency.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 15: Processing Arrays

This lesson will probably take two days to complete. It introduces students to algorithms that process lists of data. The students will do two unplugged activities related to algorithms and program some of them themselves in App Lab. The for loop is re-introduced to implement these algorithms because it’s straightforward to use to process all the elements of a list. The lesson begins with an unplugged activity in which students write an algorithm to find the minimum value in a hand of cards. Students then move to Code Studio to write programs that use loops and arrays. Students are shown how to use a for loop to visit every element in an array. Students use this pattern to process an array in increasingly complex ways. At the end of the progression, students will write functions which process arrays to find or alter information, including finding the minimum value - a problem they worked on in the unplugged activity. Finally, an unplugged activity has students reason about linear vs. binary search and attempt to write pseudocode for a binary search.

Students will be able to:
- use a for loop in a program to implement an algorithm that processes all elements of an array.
- write code that implements a linear search on an unsorted array of numbers.
- write code to find the minimum value in an unsorted list of numbers.
- explain how binary search is more efficient than linear search but can only be used on sorted lists.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 16: Functions With Return Values

In this lesson, students are introduced to the return command and learn to write their own functions that return values. Students first complete a simple unplugged activity based on the game Go Fish to introduce the concept of a return value. They will then complete a short sequence of exercises in Code Studio, which introduces preferred patterns for writing functions that return values. At the end of the sequence, students write and use functions that return values in a simple turtle driver app.

Students will be able to:
- use the return command to design functions.
- identify instances when a function with a return value can be used to contain frequently used computations within a program.
- design functions that return values to perform frequently needed computations within a program.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit 5 Chapter 2 Lesson 17: Building an App: Canvas Painter

Students continue to practice working with arrays and are introduced to a new user interface element, the canvas. The canvas includes commands for drawing simple geometric shapes (circles, rectangles, lines) and also triggers mouse and key events like any other user interface element. Over the course of the lesson, students combine these features to make an app that allows a user to draw an image while recording every dot drawn on the canvas in an array. By processing this array in different ways, the app will allow students to redraw their image in different styles, like random, spray paint, and sketching. Along the way, students use their knowledge of functions with return values to make code which is easy to manage and reuse.

Students will be able to:
- programmatically control the canvas element in response to user interactions.
- maintain a dynamically generated array through the running of a program in order to record and reuse user input.
- use nested loops within a program to repeat a command on the same array index multiple times.
- perform variable arithmetic within an array index to access items in an array by their relative position.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 1: Introduction to Data

In this kickoff to the Data Unit, students begin thinking about how data is collected and what can be learned from it. To begin the lesson, students will take a short online quiz that supposedly determines something interesting or funny about their personality. Afterwards, they will brainstorm other sources of data in the world around them, leading to a discussion of how that data is collected. This discussion motivates the introduction of the Class Data Tracker project that will run through the second half of this unit. Students will take the survey for the first time and be shown what the results will look like. To close the class, students will make predictions of what they will find when all the data has been collected in a couple of weeks.

Students will be able to:
- develop a hypothesis about student behavior over time, based on a small sample of data.
- describe sources of data appropriate for performing computations.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 2: Good and Bad Data Visualizations

This is a pretty fun lesson that has two main parts. First students warm up by reflecting on the reasons data visualizations are used to communicate about data. This leads to the main activity in which students look at some collections of (mostly bad) data visualizations, rate them, explain why a good one is effective, and also suggest a fix for a bad one.

In the second part of the class, students compare their experiences and create a class list of common faults and best practices for creating data visualizations. Finally, students review and read the first few pages of "Data Visualization 101: How to design charts and graphs" to see some basic principles of good data visualizations and see how they compare with the list the class came up with.

Students will be able to:
- identify an effective data visualization and give justification.
- collaborate to investigate and evaluate a data visualization.
- suggest an appropriate visualization for some data.
- evaluate a data visualization for the effectiveness of communication.
- identify a poor data visualization and give justification.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 3: Making Data Visualizations

Now that students have had the chance to see and evaluate various data visualizations, they will learn to make visualizations of their own. This lesson teaches students how to build visualizations from provided datasets. The levels in Code Studio provide a detailed walkthrough of how to use Google Sheets to create several different kinds of charts. While this lesson focuses on the Google Sheets tool, other tools may be substituted at the teacher’s discretion, and MS Excel support is coming soon to the lesson.

The main activity teaches students to build different chart types (scatter, line, and bar charts) from a single data set. It should be emphasized to students that the purpose of this lesson is to explore and experiment with creating different types of visualizations, not to build the perfect chart. Students will have a chance to create and customize their own charts. At the end of class, students compare their custom visualizations with those of their classmates.

Students will be able to:
- select the appropriate type of data visualization to discover trends and patterns within a dataset.
- create a bar, line, and scatter chart from a dataset using a computational tool.
- use the settings of a data visualization tool to manipulate and refine the features of a data visualization.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 4: Discover a Data Story

In this lesson, students will collaboratively investigate some datasets and use visualization tools to “discover a data story”. The lesson assumes that students know how to use some kind of visualization tool - in the previous lesson we used the charting tools of a basic spreadsheet program. Students should be working with a partner but without much teacher hand-holding. Most of the time should be spent with students poking around the data and trying to discover connections and trends using data visualization tools. It is up to them to discover a trend, make a chart, and accurately write about it.

Students will be able to:
- collaboratively investigate a dataset.
- create a visualization (chart) from provided data.
- identify possible trends or connections in a data set by creating visualizations of it.
- accurately communicate about a visualization of their own creation.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 5: Cleaning Data

In this lesson, students begin working with the data that they have been collecting since the first lesson of the chapter in the class "data tracker". They are introduced to the first step in analyzing data: cleaning the data. Students will follow a guide in Code Studio, which demonstrates the common techniques of filtering and sorting data to familiarize themselves with its contents. Then they will correct errors they find in the data by either hand-correcting invalid values or deleting them. Finally, they will categorize any free-text columns that were collected to prepare them for analysis. This lesson introduces many new skills with spreadsheets and reveals the sometimes subjective nature of data analysis.

Students will be able to:
- filter and sort a dataset using a spreadsheet tool.
- identify and correct invalid values in a dataset with the aid of computational tools
- justify the need to clean data prior to analyzing it with computational tools.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Computer Science Principles Unit Post AP Chapter 1 Lesson 7: Practice PT - Tell a Data Story

For this Practice PT students will analyze the data that they have been collecting as a class in order to demonstrate their ability to discover, visualize, and present a trend or pattern they find in the data. Leading up to this lesson, students will have been working in pairs to clean and summarize their data. Students should complete this project individually but can get feedback on their ideas from their data-cleaning partner.

Note: This is NOT the official AP® Performance Task that will be submitted as part of the Advanced Placement exam; it is a practice activity intended to prepare students for some portions of their individual performance at a later time.

Students will be able to:
- create summaries of a dataset using a pivot table.
- manipulate and clean data in order to prepare it for analysis.
- explain the process used to create a visualization.
- design a visualization that clearly presents a trend, pattern, or relationship within a dataset.
- create visualizations of a dataset in order to discover trends and patterns.
- draw conclusions from the contents of a data visualization.

Note: You will need to create a free account on code.org before you can view this resource.

9, 10, 11, 12

### Subject Area

Digital Literacy and Computer Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### A Blast From the Past With Nuclear Chemistry

After students have studied the basics of fusion and fission as well as the splitting of the atom, groups of three choose a nuclear chemistry topic to research, finding the “what, how, where, and why” of their subject. After conducting their research, students use the free Web 2.0 tool Timetoast to construct an online timeline that features fifteen important facts with images and captions about their topic. Students then use the timelines to present their newly acquired knowledge to the class.

11, 12

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Theme Poems: Using the Five Senses

Writing poetry is less daunting when students can analyze a model. In this lesson, students first listen to a read-aloud of Flicker Flash by Joan Bransfield Graham in order to understand the concept of shape and theme poems. Students use the interactive Theme Poems tool to create their own poems, then work with a peer to analyze their use of sensory language. Finally, students print and share their poems.

1, 2, 3

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Earth Verse: Using Science in Poetry

This lesson is a great way to teach both scientific and English content to a class, although the teacher can easily choose another book and subject area. In this lesson, students listen to poems in the book Science Verse by Jon Scieszka. Students then create diamante, acrostic, or theme poems with illustrations. To help increase fluency, students read their poems to the class. Finally, students create original poems using facts they have learned in the current science curriculum.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Reading, Writing, Haiku Hiking! A Class Book of Picturesque Poems

Using One Leaf Rides the Wind by Celeste Davidson Mannis as an introductory text, students learn to identify elements of haiku poetry. Students go on a class hike to observe nature in their own neighborhood and collect "picturesque" words in their writer's notebooks. They explore syllable counts in their word collections and use descriptive words to compose an original haiku. Students then use print and online resources to locate facts for informational notes on the topics of their poems. Finally, students work collaboratively to publish their poetry and notes in an illustrated class book.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### A Is for Apple: Building Letter-Recognition Fluency

Learning to recognize letters is an integral part of most kindergarten programs. The challenge is to keep students' interest while practicing until they are fluent. These lessons meet that challenge using a variety of activities. Students will apply their knowledge of letters and letter sounds as they play games and interact with letters online, using what they see and learn to create their own ABC book.

K, 1, 2

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Theme Poems: Writing Extraordinary Poems About Ordinary Objects

Writing poetry enables students to reflect on their everyday experiences, express their perceptions and observations, and craft powerful images. In this lesson, students write theme poems using their content knowledge and sensory awareness of a familiar object. Students first learn about the characteristics and format of a theme poem. They then engage in an online interactive activity in which they select a graphic of a familiar object (e.g., the sun, a heart, a balloon), build a word bank of the content area and sensory words related to the object, and write poems within the shape of the object. Finished poems are printed and displayed in class.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Talking Poetry With Blabberize

In this lesson, students are given the opportunity to be imaginative and expressive through the writing of three types of poems:  acrostic, diamante, and theme. Building on their creativity, students then use Blabberize to create Blabbers of one of their poems. Sharing their Blabbers with the class and online community will make the students more excited about writing poetry as well as providing practice of technology skills.

4, 5, 6, 7, 8

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Ferocious Fighting Fish: An Ocean Unit Exploring Beginning Word Sounds

This ocean-themed unit will focus students' attention on alliteration, or repeated beginning word sounds. Students begin by reading the book Look Who Lives in the Ocean by Allen Baker, and then sharing what they notice about the words in the story. Then they work as a class to craft a definition of alliteration and record the definition on chart paper. Students continue to expand their knowledge of alliteration by finding examples in classroom books and their own writing and then adding these examples to a class list. Next, they practice revising sentences to include alliteration and then share their revisions with the class. Finally, students compose their own class book to explore the technique in their own writing. The lesson is a natural extension after alphabet books have been introduced, when writing a class book, or to supplement independent writing projects.

K, 1, 2

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

K, 1, 2

### Subject Area

English Language Arts
Science

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Let's Read It Again: Comprehension Strategies for English-Language Learners

Using Con Mi Hermano/With My Brother by Eileen Roe, this lesson has second grade Spanish-speaking ELLs identify the main idea of the story, construct meaning from text and illustrations, and learn English words. They then demonstrate their knowledge and practice writing in English by writing a poem and a retelling of the story. This lesson (which can be adapted using bilingual books in other languages and for other ages) also has older struggling readers read with younger students. Finally, it encourages English-speaking students in mixed classrooms to learn Spanish words for familiar people and objects.

K, 1, 2

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Acrostic Poems: All About Me and My Favorite Things

In this classroom resource, students write free-verse acrostic poems about themselves using the letters of their names to begin each line. They then write an additional acrostic poem about something that is important to them. After proofreading, both poems are recopied or typed and illustrated and then mounted on construction paper for display. Several opportunities for sharing and peer review are incorporated.  Acrostic poem interactive and ABC word list included in this resource.

1, 2

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Writing Acrostic Poems with Thematically Related Texts in the Content Areas

In this unit, students will use thematically related texts, organized from least to the most complex, to gather a word bank of supporting details and content vocabulary about a concept. Then they use these words as a basis for writing acrostic poems, which support organization of information around a central idea, as the lines of an acrostic poem are held together by the topic or main idea spelled vertically.

2, 3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Peace Poems and Picasso Doves: Literature, Art, Technology, and Poetry

This lesson supports third through fifth-grade students as they apply think-aloud strategies to reading, as well as to the composition of artwork and poetry. Activities include collaborative as well as individual work. Technology tools are integrated as students research symbols of peace and as they prewrite, compose, and publish their poetry.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Guided Comprehension: Monitoring Using the INSERT Technique

While students in grades 4–6 often have the necessary skills to decode words, they sometimes struggle with comprehending the words they have read. In this lesson, students use the INSERT (Interactive Notation to Effective Reading and Thinking) technique to help them monitor their own thinking and make connections between texts and their own experiences. Students begin with an introduction to the strategy and a teacher-directed demonstration of the strategy using a text about mummies. Students are then given an opportunity to practice the strategy in small groups and reflect on the benefits of the INSERT technique. In subsequent sessions, students are divided into three instructional-level groups to practice using the strategy and participate in various writing and reading activities.

4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Building Classroom Community Through the Exploration of Acrostic Poetry

Building classroom community is one of the most challenging yet most important tasks for any teacher, and it needs to be reinforced frequently throughout the year. This lesson gives students the opportunity to be innovative, creative, and expressive while building a sense of community. In this lesson, students explore the genre of acrostic poetry and participate in a shared writing experience with acrostic poems. Using the Internet, students explore and investigate the characteristics of acrostic poetry. They then brainstorm positive character traits about one of their classmates using an online thesaurus and compose an acrostic poem. Students use an interactive online tool to write and print the final draft and then share their poem with the class.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Dynamite Diamante Poetry

This classroom resource includes engaging activities to teach basic grammar concepts while developing vocabulary and spelling proficiency. A list of several amusing and informative grammar-themed picture books supply read-aloud examples for a review of nouns and adjectives and an introduction to gerunds. Students themselves refer to the books from the list of materials, plus appropriate dictionaries and glossaries, as they engage in a word-sort activity that provides practice in the spelling changes that can occur when verbs are turned into gerunds. Diamante poems are introduced through handouts and websites, and students compose original, structured poems in this form—first as a class and then independently—using an online interactive tool.  Printable handouts and links are included.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

Poetry offers many opportunities for word play and learning about language. But because poetry can seem inaccessible, many students approach poetry writing with trepidation. This lesson for third and fourth-grade students is designed to overcome student fears by using a traditional poem to teach students about alliteration. After reading the book A My Name Is... by Alice Lyne, students use a variety of print and online resources to brainstorm their own alliterative word lists. They then create a poetry link that uses the traditional poem they have read together as a framework for their own poems.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Alliteration All Around

In this lesson, students learn about alliteration from picture books by author/illustrator, Pamela Duncan Edwards. Using the books' illustrations for inspiration, students write original alliterative sentences and share them with the class. As the lesson continues, students practice using alliteration to create acrostic poems, alphabet books, number books, and tongue twisters.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### Zines for Kids: Multigenre Texts About Media Icons

Students get to flex their writing muscles as they use a variety of writing genres to create a zine of their own: letter writing, persuasive writing, narrative, acrostic poetry, comic writing, and biography/autobiography. Each student chooses a prominent figure from popular culture as the focus for a multigenre zine and then plans the project using the Facts–Questions–Interpretations method. Students then write in each of the listed genres about their chosen subjects, using a variety of ReadWriteThink.org tools. Finally, students design covers for their projects, and the teacher binds all the printed documents into individual zines.

3, 4, 5

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### A Directed Listening-Thinking Activity for The Tell-Tale Heart

In this lesson, students participate in a Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DLTA), in which they listen to "The Tell-Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe and answer prediction questions at designated stopping points during the reading. Students then discuss and write a written response to the story at the conclusion of the lesson, in the form of either an acrostic poem or comic strip. This lesson works well at Halloween or at the beginning of a mystery unit.

6, 7, 8

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource

### More than One Way to Create Vivid Verbs

After reviewing specific nouns, students create a two-column list of nouns and ordinary verbs specific to a particular occupation. They then pair a specific noun from the first column with an occupation-related verb from the second column to create descriptive lines with vivid verbs being used in a different context. The trick lies in the fact that the verbs must be used in a new way, having nothing to do with the occupation. Often this approach to writing leads to a natural metaphorical passage as a result. Students refine this writing strategy by rotating through computer stations, each housing a descriptive passage begun by other students, revising and suggesting improvements or just adding lines to the descriptive passages.

6, 7, 8

### Subject Area

English Language Arts

### Learning Resource Type

Classroom Resource