# ALEX Classroom Resource

## Exploring Pendulums

Classroom Resource Information

Title:

Exploring Pendulums

URL:

Content Source:

Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

This lesson helps students understand concepts related to how gravitational forces act on objects by exploring the motion of pendulums. The purpose of this lesson is for students to understand the relationship between gravitational forces and the mass of objects, the changes in speed and direction of objects, and the distance between objects.

Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 3 2 ) Investigate, measure, and communicate in a graphical format how an observed pattern of motion (e.g., a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, two children teetering on a see-saw, a model vehicle rolling down a ramp of varying heights, a pendulum swinging) can be used to predict the future motion of an object. NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far. NAEP Statement:: P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Planning and Carrying out InvestigationsCrosscutting Concepts: PatternsDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Identify the phenomenon under investigation. Identify the evidence to address the purpose of the investigation. Plan the investigation. Collect data. Investigate the phenomenon, which includes observable patterns in the motion of an object. Measure how an observed pattern of motion can be used to predict the future motion of an object. Communicate in graphical form how an observed pattern of motion can be used to predict the future motion of an object.Teacher Vocabulary:Investigate Measure Communicate Graphical format Motion Pattern Predict Phenomenon DataKnowledge:Students know: The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured. When past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.Skills:Students are able to: Investigate the motion of an object. Identify patterns in the motion of an object. Measure the motion of an object. Communicate graphically the pattern of motion of an object. Use patterns of motion of an object to predict future motion of that object.Understanding:Students understand that: The pattern in the motion of the object can be used to predict future motion.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Forces and Investigations Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.3.2- Recognize patterns of motion (e.g., straight, back and forth, zigzag, fast, slow, falling, rolling); predict the motion of a common object when a force (push, pull, gravity) is applied. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 5 6 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to illustrate that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed downward towards the center of Earth. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Constructing Explanations and Designing SolutionsCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Support an explanation with evidence that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.Teacher Vocabulary:construct explanation gravitational force evidence illustrate sphericalKnowledge:Students know: The Earth's shape is spherical. That objects dropped appear to fall straight down. That people live all around the spherical Earth, and they all observe that objects appear to fall straight down.Skills:Students are able to: Construct an explanation of observed relationships. Use evidence to illustrate the relationship between gravity and objects on Earth.Understanding:Students understand that: If Earth is spherical, and all observers see objects near them falling directly "down" to the Earth's surface, then all observers would agree that objects fall toward the Earth's center. Since an object that is initially stationary when held moves downward when it is released, there must be a force (gravity) acting on the object that pulls the object toward the center of the Earth.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Earth: Gravity and Space Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.5.6- Identify examples of objects being affected by Earth's downward gravitational force. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 5 7 ) Design and conduct a test to modify the speed of a falling object due to gravity (e.g., constructing a parachute to keep an attached object from breaking).* Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Constructing Explanations and Designing SolutionsCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Design a test to modify the speed of a falling object. Conduct a test to modify the speed of a falling object. Collect and record data including data before and after the modification is added.Teacher Vocabulary:gravity design conduct gravitational forceKnowledge:Students know: The gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed downward towards the center of Earth. How an engineering design process is used to design and conduct a test. The properties (surface area, substance, weight) of different materials used to modify the speed of a falling object will affect the fall.Skills:Students are able to: Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems. Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.Understanding:Students understand that: A device added to a falling object can cause the speed to be modified.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Earth: Gravity and Space Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.5.7- Identify solutions designed to reduce the effects of a falling object due to gravity (e.g., a parachute to keep an attached object from breaking).
Tags: Earth, gravitational force, gravity, pendulum