ALEX Classroom Resource

  

Light 2: The Lighter Side of Color

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

Light 2: The Lighter Side of Color

URL:

http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/light-2-the-lighter-side-of-color/

Content Source:

Science NetLinks
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

This lesson focuses on the idea that we can see objects because they either emit or reflect light. This lesson will lead to a  discussion about the way light is reflected, absorbed, and scattered to allow certain wavelengths to reach the eye, leading to a perception of different colors. There are three Science NetLinks lessons in this series on light.

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

a. Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., rubbing hands together, burning leaves) and can move from one object to another by conduction.

b. Demonstrate that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.

c. Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop through which an electric current can pass.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound.
  • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by light.
  • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by heat.
  • Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by electric currents.
  • Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways.
  • Provide evidence that heat can move from one object to another by conduction.
  • Demonstrate that different objects can absorb energy.
  • Demonstrate that different objects can reflect energy.
  • Demonstrate that different objects can conduct energy.
  • Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop for the electric current to pass through.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Construct
  • Transfer
  • Energy
  • Potential energy
  • Kinetic energy
  • Friction
  • Conduction
  • Absorb
  • Reflect
  • Circuit
  • Open circuit
  • Close circuit
  • Heat
  • Radiation
  • Convection
  • Collision
  • Motion
  • Electrical energy
  • Stored energy
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat.
  • The transfer of energy, including the following:
    • Collisions between objects.
    • Light traveling from one place to another.
    • Electric currents producing motion, sound, heat, or light.
    • Sound traveling from one place to another.
    • Heat passing from one object to another.
    • Motion, sound, heat, and light causing a different type of energy to be observed after an interaction.
  • Heat is produced in many ways.
  • Heat can move via conduction.
  • The properties of different objects cause them to be able to absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.
  • Electric currents pass through a circuit.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Collaboratively plan and carry out an investigation that converts energy one form to another.
    • Identify the phenomenon.
    • Identify the evidence to address the purpose of the investigation.
    • Collect the data.
  • Construct an explanation using evidence about heat production.
  • Develop a model demonstrating that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.
  • Develop a model demonstrating electric circuits.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.
  • Heat energy can be produced in many ways.
  • The properties of objects, e.g. ability to absorb, reflect, or conduct energy, relate to their function.
  • Electric energy can be transferred through circuits.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Energy and Waves

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.11: Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires. In an electrical circuit containing a battery, a bulb, and a bell, energy from the battery is transferred to the bulb and the bell, which in turn transfer the energy to their surroundings as light, sound, and heat (thermal energy).

NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.7: Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy.§

NAEP Statement::
P4.8: Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.2- Recognize different sources of heat; Identify materials that are conductors of heat, such as metals.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
6 ) Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and including that waves can cause objects to move.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Develop a model of waves to describe patterns of amplitude.
  • Develop a model of waves to describe patterns of wavelength.
  • Develop a model of waves that describes patterns that cause objects to move.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Patterns
  • Propagated
  • Waves
  • Wave amplitude
  • Wavelength
  • Net motion
  • Model
  • Relevant components
  • Peaks
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Waves can be described in terms of patterns of repeating amplitude and wavelength (e.g., in a water wave there is a repeating pattern of water being higher and then lower than the baseline level of the water).
  • Waves can cause an object to move.
  • The motion of objects varies with the amplitude and wavelength of the wave carrying it.
  • The patterns in the relationships between a wave passing, the net motion of the wave, and the motion of an object caused by the wave as it passes.
  • How waves may be initiated (e.g., by disturbing surface water or shaking a rope or spring).
  • The repeating pattern produced as a wave is propagated.
  • Waves, which are the regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach.
  • Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model to make sense of wave patterns that includes relevant components (i.e., waves, wave amplitude, wavelength, and motion of objects).
  • Describe patterns of wavelengths and amplitudes.
  • Describe how waves can cause objects to move.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • There are similarities and differences in patterns underlying waves and use these patterns to describe simple relationships involving wave amplitude, wavelength, and the motion of an object.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.6- Using given models, identify patterns found in waves.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
8 ) Construct a model to explain that an object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Construct a model and use it to explain that in order to see objects that do not produce their own light, light must reflect off the object and into the eye.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • reflection
  • opaque
  • translucent
  • transparent
  • refraction
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Light enters the eye, allowing objects to be seen.
  • Light reflects off of objects, and then can travel and enter the eye.
  • Objects can be seen only if light follows a path between a light source, the object, and the eye.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Construct a model to make sense of a phenomenon.
  • Identify relevant components of the model including: light (including the light source), objects, the path that light follows, and the eye.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Energy and Waves

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.2: Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

NAEP Statement::
P4.9: Light travels in straight lines. When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result. When light travels obliquely from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.4.8- Identify a model that shows the path of light reflected from the surface of an object to be seen by the eye.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
17 ) Create and manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.

a. Analyze and interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Create a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
  • Manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
  • Analyze data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Manipulate
  • Model
  • Wave
  • Simple wave
  • Predict
  • Wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength)
  • Energy
  • Analyze
  • Interpret
  • Illustrate
  • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Photons
  • Hertz
  • Volts
  • Joules
  • Displacement
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Waves represent repeating quantities.
  • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
  • The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point in a certain time. The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz) and one hertz is equal to one wave per second.
  • Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the wave pattern from equilibrium.
  • Wavelength is the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs.
  • The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it travels.
  • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of mass-less particles, called photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount of energy. The different types of radiation are defined by the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwave photons have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared photons have still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and, the most energetic of all, gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, or Hertz. Wavelength is measured in meters. Energy is measured in electron volts or Joules.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model of a simple wave and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
  • Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between waves and their positions in the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Relationships exist between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.
  • These relationships can be predicted and described with models of simple waves.*The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency and the types of radiation are arranged in the spectrum based on the measure of their energy, wavelength, and/or frequency.
  • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.10a: Energy is transferred from place to place.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10b: Light energy from the Sun travels through space to Earth (radiation).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10c: Thermal energy travels from a flame through the metal of a cooking pan to the water in the pan (conduction).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10d: Air warmed by a fireplace moves around a room (convection).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10e: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.17- Use a model to investigate ways to change the properties of a simple wave (frequency, amplitude, wavelength).


Tags: absorb, electromagnetic, energy, eye, light, reflect, waves
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Author: Stephanie Carver