ALEX Classroom Resource

  

The Transfer of Energy 1: Thermochemistry

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

The Transfer of Energy 1: Thermochemistry

URL:

http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/the-transfer-of-energy-1/

Content Source:

Science NetLinks
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

This lesson is the first of a three-part series on energy transformation. All three lessons have the general purpose of increasing students' understanding of energy transfer, its role in chemical change, and the factors that can influence this change. This lesson is intended to increase students' understanding of heat and chemical reactions. Students will perform an experiment in which you will determine how the temperature of water changes when it is mixed with either calcium chloride or ammonium nitrate.

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 5
4 ) Investigate whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances (e.g., mixing of baking soda and vinegar resulting in the formation of a new substance, gas; mixing of sand and water resulting in no new substance being formed).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers.

NAEP Statement::
P4.4: Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • variables
  • states of matter
  • properties of matter
  • chemical change
  • physical change
  • evidence
  • temperature
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • From a given investigation plan, describe the phenomenon under investigation, including the mixing of two or more substances.
  • Identify the purpose of the investigation.
  • Describe the evidence from data that will be collected, including quantitative and qualitative properties of the substances to be mixed and the resulting substances.
  • Collaboratively plan an investigation and describe the data to be collected, including: how quantitative and qualitative properties of the two or more substances to be mixed will be determined and measured, number of trials for the investigation, how variables will be controlled to ensure a fair test.
  • Collect necessary data.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Cause and effect relationships are identified and used to explain changes like those that occur when two or more substances are mixed together.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Matter and Interactions

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.5.4- Predict whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances (e.g., mixing of baking soda and vinegar resulting in the formation of a new substance, gas; mixing of sand and water resulting in no new substance being formed).


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
7 ) Design, construct, and test a device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap) that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water) and modify the device as needed based on criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature).*

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Construct a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Test a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Modify the device as needed based on criteria.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Design
  • Construct
  • Test
  • Modify
  • Device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap)
  • Engineering
  • Engineering Design
  • Process
  • Temperature
  • Exothermic (release thermal energy)
  • Endothermic (absorb thermal energy
  • Thermal energy
  • Chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving calcium chloride in water)
  • Criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature)
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Engineering is a systematic and often iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.
  • The Engineering Design Process (EDP) is a series of steps engineers use to guide them as they solve problems.
  • The EDP may include the following cyclical steps: ask, imagine, plan, create, and improve.
  • In chemical reactions, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into new substances with different properties.
  • Chemical reactions can release thermal energy or store thermal energy. Criteria are requirements for successful designs.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Design and construct a solution to a problem that requires either heating or cooling.
  • Describe the given criteria and constraints.
  • Test the solution for its ability to solve the problem via the release or absorption of thermal energy to or from the system.
  • Use the results of the tests to systematically determine how well the design solution meets the criteria and constraints, and which characteristics of the design solution performed the best.
  • Modify the design of the device based on the results of iterative testing, and improve the design relative to the criteria and constraints.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy.
  • The transfer of energy can be measured as energy flows through a designed or natural system.
  • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it.
  • Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process - that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.
  • The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.7- Critique objects or materials used to minimize or maximize thermal energy transfer (e.g., gloves, insulated hot pad, foam cup).


Tags: chemical, energy transformation, reaction, substance, temperature
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  This resource provided by:  
Author: Stephanie Carver