ALEX Classroom Resource

  

How-To Writing: Motivating Students to Write for a Real Purpose

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

How-To Writing: Motivating Students to Write for a Real Purpose

URL:

http://readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/writing-motivating-students-write-871.html

Content Source:

ReadWriteThink
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

What do students need to know to succeed in fourth grade (or third or fifth)? What supplies are needed? What rules and steps should be followed? These and many other questions provide the framework for students to write how-to essays for a specific audience—future fourth graders. Although this lesson focuses specifically on the fourth grade, it can be easily adapted for third or fifth graders. Students first learn about the how-to writing genre by reading an assortment of instruction manuals. This also demonstrates how how-to writing relates to their everyday lives. The teacher then models each step of the writing process as the students write about how to be a successful fourth graders. After students publish their writing, the final drafts are saved for the following year's fourth graders to read at the beginning of the next school year.

Content Standard(s):
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
10 ) Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. [RI.4.1]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Cognitive Target::
  • Identify textually explicit information and make simple inference with and across texts, such as: definitions, facts, supporting details.
  • Make complex inferences within and across texts to describe problems and solution or cause and effect, determine unstated assumptions in and argument. Draw conclusions and provide supporting details.
  • Determine fact from opinion.
  • Identify textually explicit information within and across text, such as locating specific information in text or graphics. Make complex references within and across texts, such as draw conclusions and provide supporting information.

NAEP Descriptor::
Use examples from article to explain interpretation. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize main questions answered by an article. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret text details to select and provide one example. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize explicitly stated information from an article. (Locate and Recall)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize explicitly stated information in an informational text. (Locate and Recall)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize cause explicitly stated in an informational text. (Locate and Recall)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.10- Answer who, what, when, and where questions to demonstrate understanding of an informational text.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
11 ) Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. [RI.4.2]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Cognitive Target::
  • Identify textually explicit information within and across text, such as topic sentence or main idea, locate specific information in text or graphics.
  • Make complex references within and across texts, such as summarize major ideas.

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize the main topic of informational article. (Integrate and Interpret)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.11- Identify the main idea of an informational text and details that support the main idea.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
12 ) Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. [RI.4.3]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Cognitive Target::
Identify textually explicit information within and across texts to find evidence in support of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor::
Describe a process with text support. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret information in expository passage to describe steps in a process. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize best description of character based on action described in expository passage. (Locate and Recall)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.12- Identify events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in an informational text.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
13 ) Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a Grade 4 topic or subject area. [RI.4.4]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standards 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Cognitive Target::
Consider text(s) critically to evaluate the way the author selects language to influence readers.
NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize meaning of word as used in an informational article. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Use context of article to recognize meaning of figurative expression. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret word as used in an informational text. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize meaning of a word as used in an article. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize meaning of a descriptive word used in an expository passage. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret poetic language and explain. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize correct interpretation of ironic comment in a persuasive essay. (Integrate and Interpret)


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
17 ) Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. [RI.4.8]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Cognitive Target::
Analyze the presentation of information, evaluate the strength and quality of evidence used by the author to support his or her opinion, determine the quality of counter arguments, judge the coherence, logic or credibility of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor::
Make a text-based inference to recognize reason for action. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Connect text ideas to recognize an explanation. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize interpretation of a paragraph in an informational text. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize purpose of action in a process explicitly described in and expository passage. (Proficient, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize author's main purpose for writing an expository text. (Proficient, Integrate and Interpret)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.17- Identify reasons or evidence to support the main idea or points in an informational text.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
19 ) By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the Grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. [RI.4.10]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
21 ) Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. [RF.4.4]

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. [RF.4.4a]

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. [RF.4.4b]

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. [RF.4.4c]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.21- Read/identify 150 words associated with pictures or tangible objects.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
23 ) Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. [W.4.2]

a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. [W.4.2a]

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. [W.4.2b]

c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). [W.4.2c]

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. [W.4.2d]

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. [W.4.2e]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.23- Compose informative or explanatory texts by stating a topic, providing facts or details, and providing an appropriate conclusion related to the topic.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
25 ) Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 22-24 above.) [W.4.4]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
26 ) With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three Language standards in Grades K-4.) [W.4.5]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
30 ) Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.4.9]

a. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions]"). [W.4.9a]

b. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text"). [W.4.9b]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.30- Identify evidence from literary or informational texts to support a research topic.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
31 ) Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.4.10]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
41 ) Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.4.4]

a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. [L.4.4a]

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). [L.4.4b]

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. [L.4.4c]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.41a- Identify the meaning of a word used in context.
ELA.AAS.4.41c- Demonstrate the ability to use dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, etc. to find the pronunciation and meaning of key words and phrases.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
43 ) Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). [L.4.6]

Tags: final drafts, prewriting, writing
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Author: Cassie Raulston