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Stoichiometry--Chemistry for Massive Creatures: Crash Course Chemistry #6

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Title:

Stoichiometry--Chemistry for Massive Creatures: Crash Course Chemistry #6

URL:

https://aptv.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/a9c0c4d0-19e1-43b6-ae2d-652e702d8fff/stoichiometry-chemistry-for-massive-creatures-crash-course-chemistry-6/

Content Source:

PBS
Type: Audio/Video

Overview:

Stoichiometry is the relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound, typically a ratio of whole integers. Chemists need stoichiometry to make the scale of chemistry more understandable. In this video, Hank is here to explain why and to teach us how to use it. 

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
5 ) Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.

b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from the investigation to explain how the patterns of valence electrons can be used to predict the number and types of bonds each element forms.
  • Describe the cause and effect relationship between the observable macroscopic patterns of reactivity of elements in the periodic table, and the patterns of valence electrons for each atom.
  • Determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions of a component of a chemical reaction using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
  • Use stoichiometric calculations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
  • Use the mass of substances to determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Chemical reactions
  • Valence electrons
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
  • Ionic bonds
  • Covalent/ molecular bonds
  • Types of reactions:
    • synthesis
    • decomposition
    • single replacement/ displacement
    • double replacement/ displacement
    • combustion
  • Chemical reactions
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Chemical equations
  • Coefficients
  • Subscripts
  • Mass
  • Moles
  • Mole ratio
  • Ratio
  • Atoms
  • Conservation of matter
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • Stoichiometry
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The total number of atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products is the same.
  • The number and types of bonds that each atom forms is determined by their valence electron arrangement.
  • The valence electron state of the atoms that make up the reactants and the products is based on their location on the periodic table.
  • Patterns of attraction allow the prediction of the type of reaction that occurs.
  • Chemical equations are a mathematical representation of chemical reactions.
  • Coefficients of a balanced chemical equation indicate the ratio in which substances react or are produced.
  • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
  • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions.
  • Matter cannot be created or destroyed but is conserved during a chemical change.
  • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
  • Conversion between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels requires the use of moles and Avogadro's number.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify reactions and determine the quantity of reactants and products.
  • Write correct chemical formulas of products and reactants using valence electron arrangement.
  • Demonstrate that the numbers and types of atoms are the same both before and after the reaction.
  • Identify the numbers and types of bonds in both the reactants and products.
  • Describe how the patterns of reactivity at the macroscopic level are determined using the periodic table.
  • Identify reactants and products in a chemical reaction using a chemical equation.
  • Balance chemical equations.
  • Determine the number of atoms/ molecules and number of moles of each component in a chemical reaction using a balanced chemical equation.
  • Determine the molar mass of all components of a chemical reaction.
  • Calculate the mass number of atoms, molar mass and number of moles of substances in a chemical reaction.
  • Calculate the mass of a component in a chemical reaction given the mass or number of moles of any other component using proportional relationships.
  • Predict the number of atoms in the reactant and product at the atomic or molecular scale.
  • Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms and therefore mass are conserved during a chemical reaction.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
  • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons and places those with similar properties into columns, which reflect patterns of valence electrons.
  • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each level (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular, etc.) and can provide evidence to explain phenomena.
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with the knowledge of the chemical properties of the substances involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
  • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Tortoise Island; Mole Concept; Chemical Changes; Chemical Reactions; Empirical Formulas; Color of Chemistry; Aluminum Leftovers; Aspirin Synthesis; Mass and Mole Relationships in Reactions; Using Stoichiometry to Identify the Products of a Reaction; Acid Titrations; Ideal Gas Law and Molar Volume
Tags: chemistry, stoichiometry
License Type: Custom Permission Type
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AccessibilityVideo resources: includes closed captioning or subtitles
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Author: Stephanie Carver