In this infographic, learn about the impact of drought on agriculture in California. In the accompanying classroom activity, students use the information on one of the infographic graphs to compare the share of production value to the share of water usage for different crops and consider the implications for the choice of crops to grow in times of drought. To get the most from this lesson, students should be comfortable interpreting percentages and double bar graphs and familiar with ratios and rates.

Content Standard(s):

Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 6

1. Use appropriate notations [a/b, a to b, a:b] to represent a proportional relationship between quantities and use ratio language to describe the relationship between quantities.

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Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:
Given contextual or mathematical situations involving multiplicative comparisons.

Communicate the relationship of two or more quantities using ratio language.

Teacher Vocabulary:

Ratio

Ratio Language

Part-to-Part

Part-to-Whole

Attributes

Quantity

Measures

Fraction

Knowledge:

Students know:

Characteristics of additive situations.

Characteristics of multiplicative situations

Skills:

Students are able to:

Compare and contrast additive vs. multiplicative contextual situations.

Identify all ratios and describe them using "For every…, there are…"

Identify a ratio as a part-to-part or a part-to whole comparison.

Represent multiplicative comparisons in ratio notation and language (e.g., using words such as "out of" or "to" before using the symbolic notation of the colon and then the fraction bar. for example, 3 out of 7, 3 to 5, 6:7 and then 4/5).

Understanding:

Students understand that:

In a multiplicative comparison situation one quantity changes at a constant rate with respect to a second related quantity.
-Each ratio when expressed in forms: ie 10/5, 10:5 and/or 10 to 5 can be simplified to equivalent ratios,
-Explain the relationships and differences between fractions and ratios.

Diverse Learning Needs:

Essential Skills:

Learning Objectives: M.6.1.1: Define quantity, fraction, and ratio.
M.6.1.2: Identify the units or quantities being compared.
Example: Read 2/3 as 2 out of 3.
M.6.1.3: Write a ratio in appropriate notation;[a/b, a to b, a:b].
M.6.1.4: Draw a model of a given ratio or fraction.
M.6.1.5: Identify the numerator and denominator of a fraction.

Prior Knowledge Skills:

Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size.

Addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

Label numerator, denominator, and fraction bar.

Recognize fraction 1 as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards

AAS Standard: M.AAS.6.1 Demonstrate a simple ratio relationship using ratio notation given a real-world problem.

Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 6

2. Use unit rates to represent and describe ratio relationships.

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Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:
Given contextual or mathematical situations involving multiplicative comparisons,

Use unit rate to solve missing value problems (e.g., cost per item or distance per time unit).

Use rate language to explain the relationships between ratio of two quantities as non-complex fractions and the associated unit rate of one of the quantities in terms of the other.

Teacher Vocabulary:

Unit rate

Ratio

Rate language

Per

Quantity

Measures

Attributes

Knowledge:

Students know:

Characteristics of multiplicative comparison situations.

Rate and ratio language.

Techniques for determining unit rates.

To use reasoning to find unit rates instead of a rule or using algorithms such as cross-products.

Skills:

Students are able to:

Explain relationships between ratios and the related unit rates.

Use unit rates to name the amount of either quantity in terms of the other quantity flexibly.

Represent contextual relationships as ratios.

Understanding:

Students understand that:

A unit rate is a ratio (a:b) of two measurements in which b is one.

A unit rate expresses a ratio as part-to-one or one unit of another quantity.

Diverse Learning Needs:

Essential Skills:

Learning Objectives: M.6.2.1: Define unit rate, proportion, and rate.
M.6.2.2: Create a ratio or proportion from a given word problem.
M.6.2.3: Calculate unit rate by using ratios or proportions.
M.6.2.4: Write a ratio as a fraction.

Prior Knowledge Skills:

Recall basic multiplication facts.

Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Recognize key terms to solve word problems.
Examples: times, every, at this rate, each, per, equal/equally, in all, total.

Recognize a fraction as a number on the number line.

Label numerator, denominator, and fraction bar.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards

AAS Standard: M.AAS.6.1 Demonstrate a simple ratio relationship using ratio notation given a real-world problem.

Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 6

3. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve mathematical and real-world problems (including but not limited to percent, measurement conversion, and equivalent ratios) using a variety of models, including tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number lines, and equations.

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Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students: Given contextual or mathematical situations involving ratio and rate (including those involving unit pricing, constant speed, and measurement conversions),

Represent the situations using a variety of strategies (tables of equivalent ratios, changing to unit rate, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, equations, and plots on coordinate planes) in order to solve problems, find missing values on tables and interpret relationships and results.

Change given rates to unit rates in order to find and justify solutions to problems.

Given contextual or mathematical situations involving percents,

Understand the relationship between ratios, fractions, decimals and percents.

Interpret the percent as rate per 100.

Solve problems and justify solutions when finding the whole, given a part and the percent.

Solve problems and justify solutions when finding the part, given the whole and the percent.

Solve problems and justify solutions when finding percent, given the whole and the part.

Teacher Vocabulary:

Rate

Ratio

Rate reasoning

Ratio reasoning

Transform units

Quantities

Ratio Tables

Double Number Line Diagram

Percents

Coordinate Plane

Ordered Pairs

Quadrant I

Tape Diagrams

Unit Rate

Constant Speed

Knowledge:

Students know:

Strategies for representing contexts involving rates and ratios including. tables of equivalent ratios, changing to unit rate, tape diagrams, double number lines, equations, and plots on coordinate planes.

Strategies for finding equivalent ratios,

Strategies for using ratio reasoning to convert measurement units.

Strategies to recognize that a conversion factor is a fraction equal to 1 since the quantity described in the numerator and denominator is the same.

Strategies for converting between fractions, decimals and percents.

Strategies for finding the whole when given the part and percent in a mathematical and contextual situation.

Strategies for finding the part, given the whole and the percent in mathematical and contextual situation.

Strategies for finding the percent, given the whole and the part in mathematical and contextual situation.

Skills:

Students are able to:

Represent ratio and rate situations using a variety of strategies (e.g., tables of equivalent ratios, changing to unit rate, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, equations, and plots on coordinate planes).

Use ratio, rates, and multiplicative reasoning to explain connections among representations and justify solutions in various contexts, including measurement, prices and geometry.

Understand the multiplicative relationship between ratio comparisons in a table by writing an equation.

Plot ratios as ordered pairs.

Solve and justify solutions for rate problems including unit pricing, constant speed, measurement conversions, and situations involving percents.

Solve problems and justify solutions when finding the whole given a part and the percent.

Model using an equivalent fraction and decimal to percents.

Use ratio reasoning, multiplication, and division to transform and interpret measurements.

Understanding:

Students understand that:

A unit rate is a ratio (a:b) of two measurements in which b is one.

A symbolic representation of relevant features of a real-world problem can provide for resolution of the problem and interpretation of the situation.

When computing with quantities the transformation and interpretation of the resulting unit is dependent on the particular operation performed.

Diverse Learning Needs:

Essential Skills:

Learning Objectives: M.6.3.1: Define ratio, rate, proportion, percent, equivalent, input, output, ordered pairs, diagram, unit rate, and table.
M.6.3.2: Create a ratio or proportion from a given word problem, diagram, table, or equation.
M.6.3.3: Calculate unit rate or rate by using ratios or proportions with or without a calculator.
M.6.3.4: Restate real-world problems or mathematical problems.
M.6.3.5: Construct a graph from a set of ordered pairs given in the table of equivalent ratios.
M.6.3.6: Calculate missing input and/or output values in a table with or without a calculator.
M.6.3.7: Draw and label a table of equivalent ratios from given information.
M.6.3.8: Identify the parts of a table of equivalent ratios (input, output, etc.).
M.6.3.9: Compute the unit rate, unit price, and constant speed with or without a calculator.
M.6.3.10: Create a proportion or ratio from a given word problem.
M.6.3.11: Identify the two units being compared.
M.6.3.12: Define percent.
M.6.3.13: Calculate a proportion for missing information with or without a calculator.
M.6.3.14: Identify a proportion from given information.
M.6.3.15: Solve a proportion using part over whole equals percent over 100 with or without a calculator.
M.6.3.16: Form a ratio.
M.6.3.17: Convert like measurement units within a given system with or without a calculator. (Example: 120 min = 2 hrs).
M.6.3.18: Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units, including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz; l, ml; and hr, min, sec.

Prior Knowledge Skills:

Recognize arithmetic patterns (including geometric patterns or patterns in the addition table or multiplication table).
Examples: Continued Geometric Pattern by drawing the next three shapes.

Complete the numerical pattern for the following chart when given the rule, "Input + 5 = Output".

Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole.

Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Recognize key terms to solve word problems.
Examples: times, every, at this rate, each, per, equal/equally, in all, total.

Recall basic multiplication facts.

Recognize equivalent forms of fractions and decimals.

Recognize a fraction as a number on the number line.

Label numerator, denominator, and fraction bar.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards

AAS Standard: M.AAS.6.1 Demonstrate a simple ratio relationship using ratio notation given a real-world problem.

Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 7

3. Solve multi-step percent problems in context using proportional reasoning, including simple interest, tax, gratuities, commissions, fees, markups and markdowns, percent increase, and percent decrease.

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Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Use proportional reasoning strategies including setting up and solving proportions to solve problems involving simple interest, tax, gratuities, commissions, fees, markups, percent increase, markdowns or percent decrease.

Example: Students might be asked to "order" from a menu for lunch then calculate the tax and gratuities to determine the total cost.

Teacher Vocabulary:

Proportion

Simple interest

Tax

Gratuities

Commissions

Fees

Markups and markdowns

percent increase and percent decrease

Knowledge:

Students know:

how to interpret a real-world problem to determine what is being asked.

Techniques for calculating and using percents to solve problems in context.

how to interpret the solution in the context of the problem.

Skills:

Students are able to:

Write and solve proportions to help them solve real-world problems involving percent.

Solve problems that require them to calculate: simple interest, tax, gratuities, commission, fees, mark ups, markdowns, percent increase and percent decrease.

Understanding:

Students understand that:

percents relate to real-world contexts, and how to determine the reasonableness of their answers based on that context.

Diverse Learning Needs:

Essential Skills:

Learning Objectives: M.7.3.1: Define interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, and percent error.
M.7.3.2: Apply definitions to context in real-world problems.
M.7.3.3: Solve proportional problems.
M.7.3.4: Recall how to find percent and ratios.
M.7.3.5: Recall steps for solving multi-step problems.

Prior Knowledge Skills:

Define percent.

Calculate a proportion for missing information.

Identify a proportion from given information.

Solve a proportion using part over whole equals percent over 100.

Define equation and variable.

Set up an equation to represent the given situation, using correct mathematical operations and variables.

Identify the unknown, in a given situation, as the variable.

Solve the equation represented by the real-world situation.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards

AAS Standard: M.AAS.7.3 Calculate 10%, 20%, 25%, and 50% of a number up to 100.

Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 7 Accelerated

3. Solve multi-step percent problems in context using proportional reasoning, including simple interest, tax, gratuities, commissions, fees, markups and markdowns, percent increase, and percent decrease. [Grade 7, 3]

Unpacked Content

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Use proportional reasoning strategies including setting up and solving proportions to solve problems involving simple interest, tax, gratuities, commissions, fees, markups, percent increase, markdowns or percent decrease.

Example: Students might be asked to "order" from a menu for lunch then calculate the tax and gratuities to determine the total cost.

Teacher Vocabulary:

Proportion

Simple interest

Tax

Gratuities

Commissions

Fees

Markups and markdowns

Percent increase

Percent decrease

Knowledge:

Students know:

how to interpret a real-world problem to determine what is being asked.

how to interpret the solution in the context of the problem.

Skills:

Students are able to:

Write and solve proportions to help them solve real-world problems involving percent.

Solve problems that require them to calculate: simple interest, tax, gratuities, commission, fees, mark ups, markdowns, percent increase and percent decrease.

Understanding:

Students understand that:

proportional reasoning requires interpretation or making sense of percent problems.

Solving problems and determining their calculated answers may require further computation.

Diverse Learning Needs:

Tags:

multistep, percent, proportional relationships, ratio, unit pricing, unit rate