Earth and Space Science
13 ) Use models (e.g., diagrams, maps, globes, digital representations) to
explain how the rotation of Earth and unequal heating of its surface create
patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional
a. Use experiments to investigate how energy from the sun is distributed between Earth's surface and its atmosphere by convection and radiation (e.g., warmer water in a pan rising as cooler water sinks, warming one's hands by a campfire).
Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to provide evidence that the first and
second laws of thermodynamics relate work and heat transfers to the change in
internal energy of a system with limits on the ability to do useful work (e.g.,
heat engine transforming heat at high temperature into mechanical energy and
low-temperature waste heat, refrigerator absorbing heat from the cold reservoir
and giving off heat to the hot reservoir with work being done).
a. Develop models to illustrate methods of heat transfer by conduction
(e.g., an ice cube in water), convection (e.g., currents that transfer heat from
the interior up to the surface), and radiation (e.g., an object in sunlight).
b. Engage in argument from evidence regarding how the second law of
thermodynamics applies to the entropy of open and closed systems.