ALEX Classroom Resource

  

The Periodic Table of the Elements

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

The Periodic Table of the Elements

URL:

https://aptv.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.matter.lp_pertable/the-periodic-table-of-the-elements/

Content Source:

PBS
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

The periodic table is an essential part of any chemistry course. Its simple chart-like appearance belies the wealth of information that it contains. In this lesson, students learn about the origin of the modern periodic table of elements and explore an interactive version that teaches them how to extract information from it. This activity is the first of three lessons. The Strange World of the Electron and Repeating Patterns: The Shape of the Periodic Table will help to further students' understanding of this powerful tool.

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Element
  • Atom
  • Protons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic number
  • Periodic table
  • Array
  • Atomic mass
  • Period
  • Group
  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Molecule
  • Bond
  • Chemical bond
  • Valence electron
  • Ion
  • Ionic bond
  • Nonmetal
  • Metal
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond
  • Conductivity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus.
  • Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
  • Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number.
  • The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
  • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
  • Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.
  • Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
  • The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically.
  • A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
  • Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
  • Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.
  • Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics.
  • Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models.
  • Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
  • The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify scientists whose experiments added to our knowledge of atomic structure and the arrangement of the periodic table.
  • Obtain information about these scientists, their experiments, their discoveries about atomic structure, and how their discoveries aer represented on the periodic table.
  • Communicate information in a manner that connects the scientific discovery to the structure and function of an atom as well as the patterns in the periodic table.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Atomic theory
  • Periodic table history
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Examples of scientists and scientific discoveries that changed our knowledge of atomic structure.
  • How these scientific discoveries relate to the information found on the periodic table.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar properties in columns.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Obtain information from multiple, grade-level appropriate materials (text, media, visual displays, data).
  • Communicate information from a variety of reliable sources in multiple formats (oral, graphical, textual, and/or mathematical).
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • It is important to gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used.
  • Our knowledge of the structure and function of the atom changed over time due to scientific discoveries, and the history of the periodic table traces our understanding of the atom.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
History of the Atomic Theory; Excited Electrons; Coinium Isotopes of Atoms; Flame Tests
Tags: atomic mass, atomic number, chemistry, electron configuration, elements, neutron, periodic table
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Author: Stephanie Carver