ALEX Classroom Resource

  

Repeating Patterns: The Shape of the Periodic Table

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

Repeating Patterns: The Shape of the Periodic Table

URL:

https://aptv.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.matter.lp_patterns/repeating-patterns-the-shape-of-the-periodic-table/

Content Source:

PBS
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

This lesson--the third in a series of three lesson plans about the Periodic Table of Elements--explains why the elements exhibit periodicity, why the periodic table of elements is shaped the way it is, and how we are able to predict the characteristics of elements yet to be discovered or created. Students create electron configuration diagrams that describe the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus. This lesson is the third of three lessons and is intended as an enhancement activity following the completion of the first two lessons. The first lesson, The Periodic Table of the Elements, explored the origin of the periodic table. The second lesson, The Strange World of the Electron, described the structure of the atom.

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Element
  • Atom
  • Protons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic number
  • Periodic table
  • Array
  • Atomic mass
  • Period
  • Group
  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Molecule
  • Bond
  • Chemical bond
  • Valence electron
  • Ion
  • Ionic bond
  • Nonmetal
  • Metal
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond
  • Conductivity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus.
  • Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
  • Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number.
  • The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
  • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
  • Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.
  • Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
  • The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically.
  • A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
  • Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
  • Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.
  • Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics.
  • Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models.
  • Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
  • The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Physical Science
1 ) Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties and trends (e.g., reactivity of metals; types of bonds formed, including ionic, covalent, and polar covalent; numbers of bonds formed; reactions with oxygen) of main group elements based on the patterns of valence electrons in atoms.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict properties of main group elements based on patterns of valence electrons.
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict the trends of main group elements based on patterns of valence electrons.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Periodic table
  • Valence electrons
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Electrons
  • Family
  • Period
  • Covalent
  • Ionic
  • Oxidation number
  • Cations
  • Anions
  • Ions
  • Main group elements
  • Metal
  • Non-metal
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns.
  • The repeating patterns of the periodic table reflect patterns of outer electron states.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify and describe of the main group elements.
  • Describe how the number of protons determines an elements place on the periodic table.
  • Predict patterns of behavior of an element based on its position on the Periodic Table.
  • Predict number and charges of stable ions formed from atoms in a compound.
  • Determine the number and type of bonds formed.
  • Predict numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons based on periodic table information.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Students will understand how to propose an argument and defend their claim on electromagnetic radiation safety.
  • Non-ionizing radiation, such as those emitted in electronics.cannot cause immediate damage, but does interact with the body to potentially cause indirect damage, following long-term exposure.
  • Ionizing radiation, such as X-rays and gamma rays, can be hazardous.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Chemistry Module:
Periodic Table; Journey Into the Atom
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify scientists whose experiments added to our knowledge of atomic structure and the arrangement of the periodic table.
  • Obtain information about these scientists, their experiments, their discoveries about atomic structure, and how their discoveries aer represented on the periodic table.
  • Communicate information in a manner that connects the scientific discovery to the structure and function of an atom as well as the patterns in the periodic table.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Atomic theory
  • Periodic table history
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Examples of scientists and scientific discoveries that changed our knowledge of atomic structure.
  • How these scientific discoveries relate to the information found on the periodic table.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar properties in columns.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Obtain information from multiple, grade-level appropriate materials (text, media, visual displays, data).
  • Communicate information from a variety of reliable sources in multiple formats (oral, graphical, textual, and/or mathematical).
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • It is important to gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used.
  • Our knowledge of the structure and function of the atom changed over time due to scientific discoveries, and the history of the periodic table traces our understanding of the atom.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
History of the Atomic Theory; Excited Electrons; Coinium Isotopes of Atoms; Flame Tests
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict relationships between the arrangements of elements on the periodic table and the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns in bonding and shape based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the arrangement of elements on the periodic table to name compounds.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Valence
  • Main group elements
  • Properties
  • Atoms
  • Elements
  • Periods/ Rows
  • Groups/ Families/ Columns
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Periodic trends
  • metal/ nonmetal/ metalloid behavior
  • electrical/ heat conductivity
  • electronegativity
  • electron affinity
  • ionization energy
  • atomic-covalent/ ionic radii
  • Molecular modeling
  • Lewis dot
  • 3-D ball-and-stick
  • space-filling
  • VSEPR
  • Types of bonds
  • ionic bonds
  • covalent/ molecular bonds
  • metallic bonds
  • Molecular shapes
  • Ions
  • Ionic compounds
  • Covalent/ molecular compounds
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The atom has a positively-charged nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.
  • The periodic table can be used to determine the number of particles in an atom of a given element.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of main group elements on the periodic table and the pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the number of protons in their atoms.
  • The trends in relative size, reactivity, and electronegativity in atoms are based on attractions of the valence electrons to the nucleus.
  • The number and types of bonds formed (i.e. ionic, covalent, metallic) by an element and between elements are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The shapes of molecules are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The rules for naming chemical compounds are based upon the type of bond formed.
  • The number and charges in stable ions that form from atoms in a group of the periodic table are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Predict relative properties of elements using the periodic table.
  • Predict patterns in periodic trends based on the structure of the atom.
  • Predict patterns in bonding and shape based on the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to determine how elements will bond.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Models are based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table arranges elements into periods/ rows by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus.
  • Elements with similar properties are placed into groups/ families/ columns based on the repeating pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • Attraction and repulsion between electrical charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properites, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
  • The attraction and repulsion of charged particles in the atom creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • The arrangement of valence electrons in an atom also creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • Elements form bonds based upon their valence electron arrangement.
  • Chemical compounds are named based upon the type of bonds formed by their constituent atoms/ ions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at the atomic/ molecular level and the macroscopic level.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Chemicool People; It's In The Cards; Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism; Periodic Trends; Properties of Elements; Chem Cubes; Chemical Nomenclature; Bond Types and Physical Properties; Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures; Molecular Shape and Polarity; Elephant Toothpaste
Tags: atomic mass, atomic number, chemistry, electron, electron configuration, element, neutron, periodic table
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Author: Stephanie Carver