ALEX Classroom Resource

  

Theme and Variation

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

Theme and Variation

URL:

https://www.carnegiehall.org/Education/Programs/Music-Educators-Toolbox/Resources/5-Theme-and-Variation

Content Source:

Other
Carnegie Hall
Type: Learning Activity

Overview:

Students will create a theme and variations using a simple sentence.  Students will compare and contrast themes and variations while listening to Mozart's variations on "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star."  Listening examples are provided. 

Content Standard(s):
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 4
Music: General
11) Demonstrate and explain how intent is conveyed through interpretive decisions and expressive qualities.

Example: Experiment with instrumentation to explore the impact on a known piece.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Performing
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 4: Select, analyze, and interpret artistic work for presentation.
Process Components: Interpret
Essential Questions:
EU: Performers make interpretive decisions based on their understanding of context and expressive intent
EQ: How do performers interpret musical works?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
  • Conducting patterns in
  • Syncopation
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, Ti
  • Treble clef reading (La, So, Mi, Re, Do)
  • Middle C through High B
  • Create melodic sequences
  • Half-step
  • Whole step
Harmony
  • Canons
  • Chord components
  • Chord progression (I, V)
  • Crossover bordun
Form
  • Phrasing: antecedent and consequent
  • D.C. al coda
  • Fine
Expression
  • pp through ff
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Orchestra instruments within the 4 families
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (A3-E5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Sing, move and respond to music from world cultures and different composers.
  • Sing a varied repertoire with accurate rhythm, pitch and expressive qualities individually and with others.
Creating
  • With limited guidance, Improvise and compose short compositions using a variety of classroom instruments and sound sources.
Reading/ Writing
  • Read, write and perform using rhythm patterns that include syncopated rhythms, in 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 meter.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Use the head voice to produce a light, clear sound employing breath support and maintaining appropriate posture.
  • Use student developed criteria to critique their own performances and the performances of others.
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 4
Music: General
18) Demonstrate and explain how expressive qualities, including dynamics and tempo, are used in performers' and personal interpretations to reflect expressive intent.

Example: Sing music with expressive qualities and summarize expressive intent.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Responding
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
Process Components: Interpret
Essential Questions:
EU: Through their use of elements and structures of music, creators and performers provide clues to their expressive intent.
EQ: How do we discern musical creators' and performers' expressive intent?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
  • Conducting patterns in
  • Syncopation
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, Ti
  • Treble clef reading (La, So, Mi, Re, Do)
  • Middle C through High B
  • Create melodic sequences
  • Half-step
  • Whole step
Harmony
  • Canons
  • Chord components
  • Chord progression (I, V)
  • Crossover bordun
Form
  • Phrasing: antecedent and consequent
  • D.C. al coda
  • Fine
Expression
  • pp through ff
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Orchestra instruments within the 4 families
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (A3-E5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Demonstrate and explain how specific music concepts (such as form, timbre, etc.) are used to support a specific purpose in music (such as social and cultural contexts) through various means (such as manipulatives, movement, and/or pictorial representation).
Creating
  • Develop criteria and use them to critique their own performances and the performances of others.
Reading/ Writing
  • Evaluate musical works and performances, applying established criteria, citing evidence from the elements of music.
  • When analyzing selected music, read and perform rhythmic patterns and/or melodic phrases with voice, body percussion, and/or instruments, using iconic or standard notation.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of music applied to a listening example using teacher-given vocabulary (such as different sections of complex forms, teacher-selected orchestral instruments, etc.).
  • Explain how the elements and subject matter of music connect with disciplines outside the arts.
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 4
Music: General
19) Evaluate musical works and performances, applying established criteria, and explain appropriateness to the context.

Example: Write a detailed review of a live musical performance.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Responding
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
Process Components: Evaluate
Essential Questions:
EU: The personal evaluation of musical works and performances is informed by analysis, interpretation, and established criteria.
EQ: How do we judge the quality of musical work(s) and performance(s)?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
  • Conducting patterns in
  • Syncopation
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, Ti
  • Treble clef reading (La, So, Mi, Re, Do)
  • Middle C through High B
  • Create melodic sequences
  • Half-step
  • Whole step
Harmony
  • Canons
  • Chord components
  • Chord progression (I, V)
  • Crossover bordun
Form
  • Phrasing: antecedent and consequent
  • D.C. al coda
  • Fine
Expression
  • pp through ff
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Orchestra instruments within the 4 families
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (A3-E5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Demonstrate and explain how specific music concepts (such as form, timbre, etc.) are used to support a specific purpose in music (such as social and cultural contexts) through various means (such as manipulatives, movement, and/or pictorial representation).
Creating
  • Develop criteria and use them to critique their own performances and the performances of others.
Reading/ Writing
  • Evaluate musical works and performances, applying established criteria, citing evidence from the elements of music.
  • When analyzing selected music, read and perform rhythmic patterns and/or melodic phrases with voice, body percussion, and/or instruments, using iconic or standard notation.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of music applied to a listening example using teacher-given vocabulary (such as different sections of complex forms, teacher-selected orchestral instruments, etc.).
  • Explain how the elements and subject matter of music connect with disciplines outside the arts.
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 5
Music: General
11) Demonstrate and explain how intent is conveyed through interpretive decisions and expressive qualities that reflect stylistic performance practices.

Example: Perform dynamic and articulation markings in known pieces.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Performing
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 4: Select, analyze, and interpret artistic work for presentation.
Process Components: Interpret
Essential Questions:
EU: Performers make interpretive decisions based on their understanding of context and expressive intent
EQ: How do performers interpret musical works?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do-centered diatonic
  • Treble clef reading (choral octavos)
  • Grand staff
  • Bass clef
  • Accidentals
  • Major scale
Harmony
  • Part singing/ playing
  • Chord progression (I, IV, V)
  • Arpeggio
  • Descant
  • Level bordun
Form
  • Rondo form
  • 12-Bar blues
Expression
  • Vibrato
  • Tremolo
  • Reggae
  • Blues
  • Timbre: soprano, alto, tenor, bass
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (Ab3-F5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Sing a varied repertoire with accurate rhythm and pitch, appropriate expressive qualities, proper posture and breath control.
  • Sing intervals on pitch within a major diatonic scale.
  • Perform melodies on recorder while reading standard and/or iconic music notation.
  • Perform, on instruments, a varied repertoire with accurate rhythm and pitch, appropriate expressive qualities, proper posture and breath control.
  • Sing partner songs to create harmony.
  • Sight-read and prepare a performance.
Creating
  • Demonstrate appropriate use of legato and staccato in a song.
  • Create a personal playlist and explain why each piece was selected.
  • Improvise, compose and arrange music.
  • Use technology and the media arts to create and perform music.
Reading/ Writing
  • Read, write, and perform rhythms in 2/4, 3/4.
  • 4/4. and 6/8 meter signatures using whole notes through sixteenth notes, including dotted notes.
  • Read, write and perform diatonic melodies and the major scale on the treble clef staff.
  • Identify tempo markings such as allegro, presto, largo, and andante.
  • Identify ledger-line notes A, B, and C above the treble clef staff.
  • Identify whole and half steps of the major diatonic scale in printed music.
  • Recognize the difference between major and minor tonalities.
  • Write program notes to accompany performances.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Discuss melodic and harmonic elements used in a piece of music.
  • Explain how a performer performs a piece of music differently when he/she knows the social, cultural, or historical background of the piece, (e.g., How does knowing the history of the American Civil Rights Movement affect the performance of "We Shall Overcome?"
  • Demonstrate appropriate audience etiquette at live performances.
  • Write performance reviews of performances.
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 5
Music: General
18) Demonstrate and explain how expressive qualities, including dynamics, tempo, and articulation, are used in performers' and personal interpretations to reflect expressive intent.

Example: Sing music with expressive qualities and summarize expressive intent.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Responding
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
Process Components: Interpret
Essential Questions:
EU: Through their use of elements and structures of music, creators and performers provide clues to their expressive intent.
EQ: How do we discern musical creators' and performers' expressive intent?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do-centered diatonic
  • Treble clef reading (choral octavos)
  • Grand staff
  • Bass clef
  • Accidentals
  • Major scale
Harmony
  • Part singing/ playing
  • Chord progression (I, IV, V)
  • Arpeggio
  • Descant
  • Level bordun
Form
  • Rondo form
  • 12-Bar blues
Expression
  • Vibrato
  • Tremolo
  • Reggae
  • Blues
  • Timbre: soprano, alto, tenor, bass
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (Ab3-F5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Analyze the formal structure of music that is to be performed.
  • Identify elements of music to be performed for a specific context (for example, dynamic markings that are appropriate for a lullaby).
Creating
  • Choose a literary work, such as a poem or story, to generate musical ideas for performance.
Reading/ Writing
  • Examine performance music for expressive elements, and use correct notation to indicate placement.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Justify personal preferences for certain musical pieces, performance, composers and musical genres both orally and in writing.
  • Discuss contributions of musical elements to aesthetic qualities in performances of self and others.
  • Consider and articulate the influence of technology on music careers.
  • Develop and apply criteria for critiquing more complex performances of live and recorded music.
Arts Education
ARTS (2017)
Grade: 5
Music: General
19) Evaluate musical works and performances, applying established criteria, and explain appropriateness to the context, citing evidence from the elements of music.

Example: Write a detailed review of a live musical performance including specific musical elements.

Unpacked Content
Artistic Process: Responding
Anchor Standards:
Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
Process Components: Evaluate
Essential Questions:
EU: The personal evaluation of musical works and performances is informed by analysis, interpretation, and established criteria.
EQ: How do we judge the quality of musical work(s) and performance(s)?
Concepts & Vocabulary:
Rhythm
Melody
  • Pitch set: Do-centered diatonic
  • Treble clef reading (choral octavos)
  • Grand staff
  • Bass clef
  • Accidentals
  • Major scale
Harmony
  • Part singing/ playing
  • Chord progression (I, IV, V)
  • Arpeggio
  • Descant
  • Level bordun
Form
  • Rondo form
  • 12-Bar blues
Expression
  • Vibrato
  • Tremolo
  • Reggae
  • Blues
  • Timbre: soprano, alto, tenor, bass
Other
  • Age-appropriate audience and performer etiquette
  • Age-appropriate pitch matching (Ab3-F5)
Skill Examples:
Performing
  • Analyze the formal structure of music that is to be performed.
  • Identify elements of music to be performed for a specific context (for example, dynamic markings that are appropriate for a lullaby).
Creating
  • Choose a literary work, such as a poem or story, to generate musical ideas for performance.
Reading/ Writing
  • Examine performance music for expressive elements, and use correct notation to indicate placement.
Responding/ Evaluating
  • Justify personal preferences for certain musical pieces, performance, composers and musical genres both orally and in writing.
  • Discuss contributions of musical elements to aesthetic qualities in performances of self and others.
  • Consider and articulate the influence of technology on music careers.
  • Develop and apply criteria for critiquing more complex performances of live and recorded music.
Tags: theme, variation
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Partnered Event: ALEX Resource Development Summit
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  This resource provided by:  
Author: Tiffani Stricklin
The event this resource created for:ALEX Resource Development Summit