ALEX Classroom Resource

  

The Art of Forces and Motion

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

The Art of Forces and Motion

URL:

https://aptv.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/kqed07.sci.phys.lpforces/the-art-of-forces-and-motion/

Content Source:

PBS
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

The laws of nature are constantly influencing and interacting with our lives. Forces and motion are part of everything we do. How do we know what forces are acting on us or an object for that matter? Can we predict how the laws of motion will affect an object? Is it possible to create an art piece that can prove that these laws of nature exist? In this lesson, students will be able to study forces and motion vocabulary, visualize and describe the three laws of motion, discuss and design an art piece that justifies their knowledge and understanding of forces and motion, and present and interpret their art piece using vocabulary.

Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.14a: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's First Law, that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Explain Newton's First Law.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's First Law of Motion
  • Constant velocity
  • Balanced force
  • Unbalanced force
  • External force
  • Rest
  • Motion
  • Inertia
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • An object at rest remains at rest unless acted on by an external force.
  • An object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
  • An object subjected to balanced forces does not change its motion.
  • An object subjected to unbalanced forces changes its motion over time.
  • Constant velocity indicates that an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's first law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's first law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.8- Compare an object at rest and an object in motion; recognize that an object at rest remains at rest if not acted on by an outside force; demonstrate a method to change an object's motion; identify forces that cause an object in motion to slow down or stop moving.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
  • Explain, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Second Law of Motion
  • Mass
  • Acceleration
  • Potential energy
  • Kinetic energy
  • Force
  • External force
  • Sum
  • Motion
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The acceleration of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.
  • The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.
  • For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's second law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's second law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Second Law states that changes in an object's motion depends on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.9- Investigate and identify ways to change the motion of an object (e.g., change an incline's slope, change the mass of the object).


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a model of two colliding objects.
  • Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
  • Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Third Law of
  • Motion
  • Force
  • Model
  • Mass
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Action
  • Reaction
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other.
  • These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs.
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.
  • The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object.
  • The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases.
  • The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.10- Describe the motion of two colliding objects before and after the collision.


Tags: forces, laws of motion, motion
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Author: Stephanie Carver