# ALEX Classroom Resource

## The Periodic Table

Classroom Resource Information

Title:

The Periodic Table

URL:

https://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson2

Content Source:

Other
American Chemical Society
Type: Lesson/Unit Plan

Overview:

In this lesson, students will begin to look closely at the periodic table. They will be introduced to the basic information given for the elements in most periodic tables: the name, symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass for each element. Students will focus on the first 20 elements. They will try to correctly match cards with information about an element to each of the first 20 elements. Students will then watch several videos of some interesting chemical reactions involving some of these elements. Students will identify different atoms by the number of protons in the nucleus and realize that the number of electrons equals the number of protons in a neutral atom. They will also be able to explain the meaning of atomic number and atomic mass.

Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules. NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons. NAEP Statement:: P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements. NAEP Statement:: P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements. NAEP Statement:: P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties. NAEP Statement:: P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom. NAEP Statement:: P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements. NAEP Statement:: P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes. NAEP Statement:: P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: PatternsDisciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Analyze patterns within the periodic table. Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms. Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.Teacher Vocabulary:Element Atom Protons Nucleus Electrons Neutrons Atomic number Periodic table Array Atomic mass Period Group Chemical properties Physical properties Molecule Bond Chemical bond Valence electron Ion Ionic bond Nonmetal Metal Covalent bond Metallic bond ConductivityKnowledge:Students know: Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus. Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number. The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array. Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass. Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change. Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties. The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases. A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically. A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl. Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds. Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.Skills:Students are able to: Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics. Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models. Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.Understanding:Students understand that: Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements. The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.
Tags: atomic mass, atomic number, atoms, chemical reaction, electrons, elements, nucleus, periodic table, protons