ALEX Classroom Resource

  

Which Letter Team?

  Classroom Resource Information  

Title:

Which Letter Team?

URL:

https://www.spellingcity.com/games/which-letter-team.html

Content Source:

Other
Vocabulary Spelling City
Type: Interactive/Game

Overview:

Which Letter Team? teaches students to recognize and identify letters and sounds in isolation to help build word recognition. This activity primarily focuses on digraphs and trigraphs.

Content Standard(s):
English Language Arts
ELA2021 (2021)
Grade: 1
7. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately both in isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate texts.

a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each letter of the alphabet, including x, q, and the long and short sounds of the vowels.

Examples: x= /ks/; q=/kw/; a=/ă/ and /ā/, s= /s/ and /z/

b. Decode and encode regularly-spelled, one-syllable words with closed syllables, open syllables, and vowel-consonant-e syllables, including words with blends in initial and final position.

Note: Consonant blends should include st-, sm-, sn-, -st, -ft, -lp, sl, cr, cl, tr, dr, nt, nd, mp, and nk, at a minimum.

c. Decode words with digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations, including digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ph, ng, trigraphs tch and dge, and combination qu.

Note: Some programs/experts call wh a combination, others call it a digraph. Use common language across the school/district.

d. Decode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

e. With prompting and support, decode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y; g=/g/before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

f. Decode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

g. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables, including ar, er, ir, or, and ur.

h. With prompting and support, decode words with common vowel team syllables, including ai, ay, ee, ea, igh, ie, oa, ou, ow, au, aw, oe, oo, ew, oi, oy, and ue.

i. With prompting and support, decode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

Examples: mild, host, fold, jolt, kind

j. With prompting and support, decode two-syllable words using knowledge of closed syllables, open syllables, vowel-consonant-e syllables, vowel-r syllables, common vowel team syllables, and consonant-le syllables, including compound words that fit multiple syllable types.

k. With prompting and support, decode words with silent letter combinations.

Examples: kn, wr, mb, gh, gn

l. With prompting and support, decode words with common prefixes including un-, dis-, in-, re-, pre-, mis-, non-, and ex-.

m. With prompting and support, decode words with common suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

Examples: -s, -ed, -ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

n. Decode contractions with am, is, has, and not.

Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't

o. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

Examples: saw, all, made, can, his, walk, let, open, time
Unpacked Content
Key Academic Terms:
7.
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Word-analysis skills
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Isolation
  • Decodable, grade-appropriate texts
7a.
  • Frequent sounds
  • Long vowel sounds
  • Short vowel sounds
7b.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Regularly-spelled
  • One-syllable words
  • Closed syllables
  • Open syllables
  • Vowel-consonant-e syllables
  • Blends
  • Initial position
  • Final position
7c.
  • Decode
  • Digraphs
  • Trigraphs
  • Combinations
7d.
  • Decode
7e.
  • Decode
  • Hard sounds
  • Soft sounds
  • Prompting
  • Support
7f.
  • Decode
  • Vowel y
  • Medial position
  • Final position
  • One-syllable words
  • Two-syllable words
  • Long /ī/ sound
  • Long /ē/ sound
  • Short /ĭ/ sound
7g.
  • Decode
  • One-syllable words
  • vowel-r syllables
7h.
  • Decode
  • Common vowel team syllables
  • Prompting
  • Support
7i.
  • Decode
  • Patterns
  • Prompting
  • Support
7j.
  • Two-syllable words
  • Closed syllable
  • Open syllables
  • Vowel-consonant-e syllables
  • vowel-r syllables
  • Common vowel team syllables
  • Consonant-le syllables
  • Compound words
  • Prompting
  • Support
7k.
  • Decode
  • Silent letter combinations
  • Prompting
  • Support
7l.
  • Decode
  • Common prefixes
  • Prompting
  • Support
7m.
  • Decode
  • Common suffixes
  • Suffix addition
  • Prompting
  • Support
7n.
  • Decode
  • Contractions
7o.
  • Decode
  • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
  • Predictable
  • Decod
Knowledge:
7. Students know:
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
  • Word-analysis skills.
7a.
  • Letter sounds.
  • Long and short vowel sounds.
7b.
  • Regularly-spelled, one-syllable words.
  • Letter patterns for closed syllables, open syllables, and vowel-consonant-e syllables.
  • Words with blends in the initial and/or final position.
7c.
  • Digraphs, including ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ph, and ng.
  • Trigraphs, including tch and dge.
  • Combination qu.
7d.
  • The sound a makes when it occurs after w.
  • The sound a makes when it occurs before l.
7e.
  • The hard sound of c is /k/.
  • The soft sound of c is /s/.
  • The hard sound of g is /g/.
  • The soft sound of g is /j/.
7f.
  • The letter y can make three vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
7g.
  • Regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables.
7h.
  • Common vowel team syllables.
7i.
  • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
7j.
  • Two-syllable words, including compound words.
  • The features of a closed syllable.
  • The features of an open syllable.
  • The features of a vowel-consonant-e syllable.
  • The features of a vowel-r syllable.
  • The features of common vowel team syllables.
  • The features of a consonant-le syllable.
7k.
  • Silent letter combinations, such as kn, wr, mb, gh, gn.
7l.
  • Common prefixes.
7m.
  • Common suffixes, such as -s, -ed, -ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly.
  • Suffix addition patterns.
  • 7n.
    • Contractions with am, is, has, and not, such as I'm, he's, she's, is
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    In isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate texts,
    • Decode and encode words by applying phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Decode and encode words using word-analysis skills.
    7a.
    • Produce the most frequent sounds for each letter of the alphabet, including x and q.
    • Produce long and short vowel sounds.
    7b. Using regularly-spelled, one-syllable words,
    • Decode and encode closed syllable words.
    • Decode and encode open syllable words.
    • Decode and encode vowel-consonant-e syllable words.
    • Decode and encode words with blends in the initial and/or final position.
    7c.
    • Decode words with digraphs.
    • Decode words with trigraphs.
    • Decode words with combination qu.
    7d.
    • Decode words with a after w, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Decode words with a before l, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    7e. With prompting and support,
    • Decode (read) words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.
    7f.
    • Decode (read) words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
    • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
    • Decode (read) words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
    7g.
    • Decode (read) regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables.
    7h.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words with common vowel team syllables, including ai, ay, ee, ea, igh, ie, oa, ou, ow, au, aw, oe, oo, ew, oi, oy, and ue.
    7i.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words that follow the -ild, -ost, -
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • Graphemes (letter symbols) represent specific phonemes (sounds) they can use to decode (read) words.
    • Phonemes (speech sounds) can be represented by graphemes (letter symbols) to encode (spell) words.
    • Word-analysis skills are used to determine how to decode or encode based on position, adjacent letters, etc.
    7a.
    • Each letter of the alphabet makes at least one speech sound.
    • x and q make two speech sounds (x=/ks/ and q=/kw/).
    • Vowels can make a long or short speech sounds.
    7b.
    • Knowing letter patterns within each syllable type will help them decode and encode words quickly and accurately.
    7c.
    • A digraph is a two-letter combination that represents a single phoneme in which neither letter makes its usual sound.
    • A trigraph is a three-letter combination that represents one phoneme.
    • In English words, q and u always occur together, and combination qu represents two sounds /k/ and /w/.
    7d.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    7e.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    7f.
    • Y can make three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • The position of the vowel y in the word determines how the y is pronounced.
    7g.
    • In words that contain the vowel-r syllable type, the sound of the vowel usually changes.
    7h.
    • A vowel team is a combina
    English Language Arts
    ELA2021 (2021)
    Grade: 2
    10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

    a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa syllables.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, li-on

    c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs.

    d. Decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

    Examples: qu, sh, ch, th, ph, wh, tch, dge

    e. Decode and encode words with variable vowel teams and vowel diphthongs.

    Examples: oi, oy; ou, ow; au, aw; oo, ew, ue; ee, ea; igh, ie; ai, ay

    f. Decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations.

    Examples: ar, air, are, ear, eer, er, ere, eir, ir, or, oar, ore, our, ur

    g. Decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

    Examples: wild, most, cold, colt, mind

    h. Decode and encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

    Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

    i. Decode and encode words with or after w read /er/.

    Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

    j. Decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

    Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y
    g=/g/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

    k. Decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

    Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

    l. Decode words with silent letter combinations.

    Examples: kn, mb, gh

    m. Decode and encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

    Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-; -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

    n. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

    Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
    decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa), from- (o is schwa)
    what - (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

    o. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll
    Unpacked Content
    Key Academic Terms:
    10.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • In context
    10a.
    • Decode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Common syllable patterns
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    • Schwa syllable
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Grade-appropriate multisyllabic words
    10c.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Three-consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    10d.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Consonant digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Combinations
    10e.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Variable vowel teams
    • Vowel diphthongs
    10f.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • vowel-r combinations
    10g.
    • Encode
    • Decode
    • Letter patterns
    10h.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    10i.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    10j.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Hard sound
    • Soft sound
    • In context
    • In isolation
    10k.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Vowel y
    • Medial position
    • Final position
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long /ī/ sound
    • Long /ē/ sound
    • Short /ĭ/ sound
    10l.
    • Decode
    • Silent letter combinations
    10m.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Suffix addition
    10n.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable <
    Knowledge:
    10. Student know:
    • Spoken words can be represented in print by using letter symbols (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).
    • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • Multisyllabic words contain more than one syllable, and multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining individual syllables.
    • Syllable division is breaking words apart by the syllables.
    • Decode means to read, and encode means to spell.
    • Decoding and encoding in isolation means reading or spelling a single word, while in context refers to these skills within a larger text.
    10a.
    • Accurately decoding multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
    • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily decoded.
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
    • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
    10c.
    • Three-consonant blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    10d.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    10e.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent for one vowel sound.
    • Variable vowel teams are vowel teams that can make different sounds.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    10f.
    • vowel-r combinations are a sin
    Skills:
    10. Students are able to:
    • Read and spell words accurately in isolation and in context based on their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles.
    10a.
    • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa.
    10b.
    • Decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, rab-bit; V/CV, o-pen; VC/V, cab-in; CV/VC, li-on.
    10c.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs, such as lunch and shred.
    10d.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, such as sh, ch ,th, ph, wh.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with combinations, such as qu.
    10e.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with variable vowel teams (examples: ea, ie, oo) and vowel diphthongs (examples: oi, ou).
    10f.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations, such as ar, air, ear, eer, er, eir, ir, or, our, ur.
    10g.
      Accurately decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as wild, most, cold, colt, mind.
    10h.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with a after w, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with a before l, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    10i.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with or after w pronounced /er/, such as world, word, worm, worst, work.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • To read (decode), they must accurately say the sounds (phonemes) that are represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They will sometimes use these skills in isolation, and other times in context when reading or writing a longer text.
    10a.
    • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
    • They can create words that are multisyllabic by combining individual syllables.
    • They can use the syllable division principles to help with decoding grade-appropriate words.
    10c.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a three-letter consonant blend each consonant produces a sound.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a digraph and a blend, the digraph will be represented by two letters that make one sound, combined with a consonant that produces its sound.
    10d.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be decoded and encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    10e.
    • Variable vowel teams are also called unpredictable vowel teams because the graphemes make different sounds, such as in meat, head, steak.
    • Vowel diphthongs are a type of vowel team where the mouth position shifts during the production of the single vowel phoneme, such as in boy and cow.
    10f.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel sound frequently changes, and the spellings of these sounds are variable.
    10g.
    • Long-vowel
    English Language Arts
    ELA2021 (2021)
    Grade: 3
    8. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

    a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and odd or schwa syllables.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; com-mit-ment, e-vent, ev-er-y, po-et

    c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends, digraphs, trigraphs, quadrigraph eigh, combinations, diphthongs, and silent letter combinations.

    Examples: spl-, str-, scr-, squ-; th, sh, ch, ck, ph; tch, dge, igh; er, ir, ar, or; oi, oy, ou, ow; kn, gn, mb, wr, gh

    d. Decode and encode words with graphemes that represent multiple sound-symbol correspondences by applying knowledge of most common to least common frequency.

    Examples: y can be read /y/ in yet, /ē/ in candy, /ī/ in fly
    digraph ch can be read /ch/ in chair, /sh/ in chef, and /k/ in school
    diphthong ow is read /ou/ in cow, but digraph ow is read /ō/ in snow

    e. Decode and encode multisyllabic words using knowledge of stress or accent to pronounce a word correctly, including the schwa sound when appropriate.

    Examples: the noun con'/vict vs. the verb con/vict'; the noun pro'/duce vs. the verb pro/duce'

    f. Decode and encode words using knowledge of the morphological structure of a word, including prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

    Examples: fore-, anti-, post-, sub-; -ment, -hood, -er, -or; port, ject, form, dict

    g. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll

    h. Decode and encode frequently confused homophones accurately using knowledge of English and meaning to facilitate learning.

    Examples: hear/here; night/knight; tacks/tax

    i. Decode and encode words with hard and soft c and g.

    j. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular and irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, using knowledge of the specific sound-symbol correspondences that are irregular.
    Unpacked Content
    Key Academic Terms:
    8.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • In context
    8a.
    • Decode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Common syllable patterns
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    • Odd syllable
    • Schwa syllable
    8b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Grade-appropriate multisyllabic words
    8c.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Three-Consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Quadrigraph
    • Combinations
    • Diphthongs
    • Silent letter combinations
    8d.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Graphemes
    • Sound-Symbol correspondences
    • Apply
    • Knowledge
    • Most common frequency
    • Least common frequency
    8e.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Stress
    • Accent
    • Pronounce
    • Schwa sound
    8f.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Knowledge
    • Morphological structure
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Roots
    8g.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Contractionse
    8h.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Frequently confused homophones
    • Accurately
    • Knowledge of English
    8i.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Hard c
    • Soft c
    • Hard g
    • Soft g
    8j.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Sound-symbol correspondences
    Knowledge:
    8. Student know:
    • Spoken words can be represented in print by using letter symbols (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).
    • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • Multisyllabic words contain more than one syllable, and multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining individual syllables.
    • Syllable division is breaking words apart by the syllables.
    • Decode means to read, and encode means to spell.
    • Decoding and encoding in isolation means reading or spelling a single word, while in context refers to these skills within a larger text.
    8a.
    • Accurately decoding multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
    • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily decoded.
    8b.
    • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
    • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
    8c.
    • Three-consonant blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Quadrigraph eigh is a combination of four letters that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    • Silent letter combinations are letter combinations in which one or more letters is silent (does not represent a phoneme), but another letter does represent the phoneme.
    8d.
    • Graphemes can represent more than one sound.
    • Graphemes represent some sounds more often than other sou
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Read and spell words accurately in isolation and in context based on their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles.
    8a.
    • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, odd, and schwa.
    8b.
    • Decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, com-mit,ment; V/CV, e-vent; VC/V, ev-er-y; CV/VC, po-et.
    8c.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with three-consonant blends, such as spl-, str-, scr-, squ-.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, such as th, sh, ch, ck, ph.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge, igh.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with combinations, such as er, ir, ar, or.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with diphthongs, such as oi oy, ou, ow.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with silent letter combinations, such as kn, gn, mb, wr, gh.
    8d.
    • Decode and encode words that contain graphemes that represent multiple sound-symbol correspondences, using their knowledge of the most common and least common sound-symbol correspondence; for example, y can be read /y/ in yet, /ē/ in candy, /ī/ in fly.
    8e.
    • Decode multisyllabic words using knowledge of stressed and unstressed syllables and the schwa sound, such as the noun con'/vict, vs. the verb con/vict'; the noun pro'/duce vs. the verb pro/duce'.
    • Encode multisyllabic words using knowledge of the stressed and unstressed syllables and the schwa sound.
    8f.
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    Understanding:
    8. Students understand that:
    • To read (decode), they must accurately say the sounds (phonemes) that are represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They will sometimes use these skills in isolation, and other times in context when reading or writing a longer text.
    8a.
    • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
    8b.
    • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
    • They can create words that are multisyllabic by combining individual syllables.
    • They can use the syllable division principles to help with decoding grade-appropriate words.
    8c.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be decoded and encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    8d.
    • Knowing that some graphemes represent multiple sounds strengthens their phonics skills so they are able to readily read and spell words that are both common and not common.
    8e.
    • Knowing stresses and accents in words and how they are pronounced, can help them read and spell the correct word required by the context.
    8f.
    • Their knowledge of the different word parts (prefixes, suffixes, and roots) can help them read and spell most multisyllabic words if they break them apart into smaller morphemes.
    8g.
    • Contractions are combinations of more than one word and use an apostrophe in place of the omitted letters.
    8h.
    • Homophones are words that can be confused so it is important to pay attention to the word's meaning in context (whether in
    Tags: digraphs, trigraphs, word recognition
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    Author: YVETTE AKRIDGE