4 ) Analyze and interpret data using acid-base indicators (e.g., color-changing
markers, pH paper) to distinguish between acids and bases, including comparisons
between strong and weak acids and bases.
6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations
of solutions quantitatively using molarity.
a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.
b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the
solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of
pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.
c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic
and covalent substances in a solution.
d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of
strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and
Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).