ALEX Learning Activity

  

Molecule Drawings

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  This learning activity provided by:  
Author: Holly Evans
System:Jefferson County
School:Rudd Middle School
  General Activity Information  
Activity ID: 2327
Title:
Molecule Drawings
Digital Tool/Resource:
Molecules
Web Address – URL:
Overview:

In this activity, students work in groups to draw molecules showing the individual atoms in a chemical formula.

This activity was created as a result of the ALEX Resource Development Summit.

  Associated Standards and Objectives  
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts.


Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Element
  • Atom
  • Protons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic number
  • Periodic table
  • Array
  • Atomic mass
  • Period
  • Group
  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Molecule
  • Bond
  • Chemical bond
  • Valence electron
  • Ion
  • Ionic bond
  • Nonmetal
  • Metal
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond
  • Conductivity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus.
  • Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
  • Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number.
  • The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
  • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
  • Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.
  • Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
  • The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically.
  • A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
  • Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
  • Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.
  • Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics.
  • Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models.
  • Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
  • The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.


Learning Objectives:

Given a chemical formula, students will be able to draw a model of an assigned molecule.

  Strategies, Preparations and Variations  
Phase:
During/Explore/Explain
Activity:

1.  Students view the video clip Molecules.

2.  Student groups choose Molecule Cards from a bag. The groups use a periodic table to identify which atoms make the molecule.

3.  Student groups draw a model of the chosen molecule using the white paper, colored pencils/markers, and round objects for tracing circles. 

4.  Students use a color key for the most common elements:

    • hydrogen=red
    • sodium=purple
    • oxygen=blue
    • nitrogen=yellow
    • chlorine=green
    • carbon=black

5.  Students need to add to their color key for additional elements in their formulas.

6.  Using digital devices with internet access, students research to identify the uses of their chosen molecule. This information is added to the group drawings.

Assessment Strategies:

Student drawings are evaluated using the following criteria:

  • the correct number of atoms of each element in the formula drawn and labeled.
  • uses of the molecule identified/illustrated.

Advanced Preparation:

The Molecule Cards can be laminated for longer use.

A bag, box, or envelope is needed to so students can draw cards randomly.

Variation Tips (optional):

Individual students draw their own models. Students who have the same molecule compare their finished drawings and collaborate on researching uses.

Notes or Recommendations (optional):
 
  Keywords and Search Tags  
Keywords and Search Tags: models, molecules, periodic table