ALEX Learning Activity

  

Finding the Difference Using the Crayon Box

A Learning Activity is a strategy a teacher chooses to actively engage students in learning a concept or skill using a digital tool/resource.

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  This learning activity provided by:  
Author: Kimberly Henderson
System:Elmore County
School:Wetumpka Elementary School
  General Activity Information  
Activity ID: 2680
Title:
Finding the Difference Using the Crayon Box
Digital Tool/Resource:
"Missing Addends: Finding a Missing Part for Kids" Video
Web Address – URL:
Overview:

This learning activity will guide students through solving story problems. It will help the students unpack simple word problems with unknowns in all positions.  The students will use different strategies to solve problems. It will encourage the students to make sense of problems. This learning activity will engage the students so that they will feel confident in solving a variety of story problems.

This activity results from the ALEX Resource Development Summit.

  Associated Standards and Objectives  
Content Standard(s):
Mathematics
MA2015 (2016)
Grade: 1
1 ) Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (See Appendix A, Table 1.) [1-OA1]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.1.1- Represent addition as "add to/put together" and subtraction as "take from/take apart" with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, or verbal explanations (limited to 15).


ELJ
Mathematics
MA2015 (2016)
Grade: 1
2 ) Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. [1-OA2]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.1.2- Represent addition as 'add to/put together' and subtraction as "take from/take apart" with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, or verbal explanations (limited to 15).


ELJ
Mathematics
MA2015 (2016)
Grade: 1
8 ) Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. [1-OA8]



NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
4NPO3f: Solve application problems involving numbers and operations.


ELJ
Learning Objectives:

  • The student will use addition and subtraction to solve problems within 20.
  • The student will determine the unknown whole number in addition and subtraction equations relating to three whole numbers (for example, 10-8=2).
  • The student will justify the reasonableness of his/her answer and explain his/her strategies.
  Strategies, Preparations and Variations  
Phase:
During/Explore/Explain
Activity:

  1. Gather students on the floor to watch the video to review missing addends.
  2. Show students the following problem on the chart paper, asking them to read aloud with you.

    • Problem:  Maria has eight more crayons than Brian. Maria has 10 crayons. How many crayons does Brian have?

  3. Read the problem a second time.  
  4. This is the Extension of the problem for students that solve the first part easily: 

    • Ana has 4 crayons. If she puts her crayons with Brian and Maria's crayons, will they have enough to fill a box that holds 16 crayons?  How do you know?

  5. Ask students to restate the problem in their own words. Students will "unpack" the problem (give the information they know about the problem from reading it). This can be done by asking the following questions:  What information do you know from the problem? What information are you trying to find out?  
  6. Avoid encouraging students to use keywords as a solution strategy. In this particular problem, if a child were to pick out the word "more" and the two numbers, they might simply add and respond with the answer, 18. The discussion of what the problem is asking you to solve is key in building problem-solving techniques.
  7. Send students to workspaces to glue a personal copy of the problem in their journals or on a piece of paper.
  8. Have students solve the problem with pictures, manipulatives, words, and an equation.
  9. Record solutions in their journals or on the piece of paper.
  10. While students work, the teacher observes and asks questions, checking for understanding, and looking for students to share their strategies used to solve the problem.
  11. Bring students back together as a group for sharing. The teacher needs to allow students to do most of the talking and questioning, with the teacher offering support and clarification if needed.
Assessment Strategies:

As the students work on the problem pose the following questions to check for understanding:

  • Tell me what you are thinking.
  • What does this part of your solution show?
  • Reread the problem for me. What is the problem asking you to find in it?
  • What tool did you decide to use for this problem? Why did you select it?
  • How can you represent this problem another way? Show me on your paper.

After solving the problem, pose these questions:

  • Tell the group how you solved it?
  • What did you do first? Why?
  • What did you do next? Why?
  • What was your mathematical thinking for this problem?

Advanced Preparation:

  • Review Critical Area 1 for First Grade to connect this lesson with key mathematical ideas of developing an understanding of addition and subtraction.
  • Prepare a written copy of the problem on chart paper.
  • Prepare a class set of the problem for individuals.
  • Prepare baskets of manipulative materials, which have been used in previous lessons, to assist the students in solving the problems.
Variation Tips (optional):

  • Extension of the problem for students that solve the first part easily:  Ana has 4 crayons. If she puts her crayons with Brian and Maria's crayons, will they have enough to fill a box that holds 16 crayons? How do you know? 
  • Help struggling students create a picture representation of the problem, using labels for the students in the problem for the student in small chunks allowing the student to act out and test each part with materials.
Notes or Recommendations (optional):

ALCOS 2019 Mathematical Standards:

8. Solve for the unknown whole number in various positions in an addition or subtraction equation, relating three whole numbers that would make it true.
Example: determining the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? – 3, and 6 + 6 = ?

2. Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20 by using concrete objects, drawings, or equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

1. Use addition and subtraction to solve word problems within 20 by using concrete objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
a. Add to with change unknown to solve word problems within 20.
b. Take from with change unknown to solve word problems within 20.
c. Put together/take apart with addend unknown to solve word problems within 20.
d. Compare quantities, with difference unknown, bigger unknown, and smaller unknown while solving word problems within 20.

  Keywords and Search Tags  
Keywords and Search Tags: addition, differences, equations, mathematical practices, missing addend, problemsolving, strategies, subtraction, unknown difference, unknown whole number, unpacking problems