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# Lesson Plans

## Forecasting Statistics

### Overview

Students will research the ten day weather forecast. They will document the high's for ten days as well as the low's for ten days. Once students document this information, they will find the mean, median, mode, and range of the data collected.

This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.

Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

The students will research the ten-day forecast.

The students will calculate the mean, median, mode, and range of the data collected.

## Plate Tectonics: Convection Model- Plates Go With the Flow

### Overview

This lesson is the third of a three-part unit on plate tectonics, which includes hands-on, inquiry-based activities. Students will learn about the relationship between temperature and density using lava lamps. The students will also model a theory for the mechanism that drives tectonic plate movement by using a hot plate and water to produce convection cells or currents, and food coloring gels to make the currents visible.

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

• Students will identify temperature as a condition that can change the density of a substance and affect the movement of a substance.
• Students will illustrate and describe how a change in density can cause movement inside the Earth.
• Students will model convection currents in the Earth’s mantle and explain how these convection cells move the Earth’s plates.

## Creative Factor Trees

### Overview

Students will explore and review prime and composite numbers. Students will also build a factor tree model by displaying how to write out a prime factorization of a number correctly, how to identify prime and composite numbers, and how to check their results. This hands-on approach allows students to use different mediums and practice their understanding of mathematics.

Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will be able to find the prime factorization of a number as well as identify prime and composite numbers.

### National/Other Standards

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.B.4

NCTM Numbers and Operations Grade 4:

• use factors, multiples, prime factorization, and relatively prime numbers to solve problems

## A Study of the Physical Regions of Alabama

### Overview

In this lesson, students will learn the characteristics of the five geographic regions of Alabama by researching the regions using maps, the Internet, and books. The students will also make a salt dough map depicting Alabama’s land regions.

This lesson was created as a part of the Alabama History Education Initiative, funded by a generous grant from the Malone Family Foundation in 2009.

Author Information: Ivy Murry and DeShaundra Johnson (Cohort 1: 2009-2010); Holly Hill Elementary and Hall-Kent; Elementary Enterprise City Schools and Homewood City Schools;  Enterprise, AL and Homewood, AL

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

The student will be able to:

• identify the land regions of Alabama
• describe the natural resources and environments of the regions
• demonstrate map skills by making, painting, and labeling a physical map of the land regions of Alabama

The student will be able to categorize geological features of Alabama, e.g. plateaus - Cumberland Plateau, plains - East Gulf Coastal Plain

### National/Other Standards

National Council for Geographic Education, 1994 Geographic Standard 4-Grades K-4 (p. 113)

Places and Regions The student is able to: A. Describe and compare the physical characteristics of places at a variety of scales, local to global, as exemplified by being able to

• Use a variety of visual materials and data sources (e.g., photographs, satellite produced images, pictures, tables, charts) to describe the physical characteristics of a region, noting items that have similar distributions (e.g., trees in river valleys)

• Use cardboard, wood, clay, or other materials to make a model of a region that shows its physical characteristics (e.g., landforms, bodies of water, vegetation)

## Alabama Farm Life in the Great Depression

### Overview

This lesson will include the use of a primary document and period photographs for a cross-curriculum lesson analyzing setting to identify some adverse effects of the Great Depression for farmers. The student will create a postcard which depicts an understanding of the impact of the Great Depression on farmers.

This lesson was created as a part of the Alabama History Education Initiative, funded by a generous grant from the Malone Family Foundation in 2009.

Author Information: April Mitchell (Cohort 2: 2010-2011); Greenwood Elementary; Bessemer City Schools; Bessemer, AL

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

• The students will be able to describe and picture the effects of the Great Depression on Alabama farmers.

• The students will be able to determine setting, as a literary device, from a primary source document and photographs.

### National/Other Standards

National Standards for History, 1996 Standards in History for Grades 5-12, p. 117 Era 8, Standard 1B – The student understands how American life changed during the 1930s.

## Alabama Tenant Farmers and Sharecroppers, 1865 to Present

### Overview

This lesson explores the reasons for the development of the tenant farming and sharecropping system in the post-Civil War era. Using primary sources (pictures and labor contracts), the lesson presents some of the situations that caused the system to develop. It covers the lifestyle of the farmers and investigates the reasons for the decrease in the system of tenant farming and sharecropping after the Depression and World War II.

This lesson was created as a part of the Alabama History Education Initiative, funded by a generous grant from the Malone Family Foundation in 2009.

Author Information: Vicki Looser (Cohort 1: 2009-2010); Lanett High School; Lanett City Schools Lanett, AL

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

The student will be able to:

• List the reasons for the development of the tenant farming and sharecropping system;

• Describe the lifestyles of the tenant farmer and sharecropper;

• Discuss the reasons for the decline of the system of tenant farming and sharecropping;

• Analyze primary sources (pictures, labor contracts) and comprehend the role of primary sources in examining historical events.

### National/Other Standards

National Standards for History, 1996 Era 6: The Development of Industrial United States (1870-1900) p. 105 2C The student understands how agriculture, mining, and ranching were transformed.

National Council for the Social Studies, 1994 Standard VII: Production, Distribution, and Consumption – High School (p. 130) a. Explain how the scarcity of production resources (human, capital, technological, and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed.

## An African American Represents Alabama during Reconstruction

### Overview

This lesson engages students in research on a prominent African American and his role in politics during Reconstruction in Alabama. Photographic primary sources are used in this lesson.

This lesson was created as a part of the Alabama History Education Initiative, funded by a generous grant from the Malone Family Foundation in 2009.

Author Information: Rebecca Campbell (Cohort 2: 2010-2011); Uniontown Elementary School; Perry County School System; Uniontown, AL

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will research and analyze primary sources to identify an African American (Benjamin Sterling Turner) who had an impact on Alabama during Reconstruction in Alabama.

### National/Other Standards

National Standards for History, 1996 Standards in History for Grades 5-12 (p.101) Era 5, Standard 3 – How various Reconstruction plans succeeded or failed 3C – The student understands the successes and failures of Reconstruction in the South, North, and West.

National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, (Bulletin 111, 2010) Standard 5 – Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (p. 78) Social studies programs should include

## Change of View: George C. Wallace

### Overview

This lesson will use primary sources to compare and contrast the perspectives of George C. Wallace at the beginning and in the latter part of his life as a political figure in Alabama. The students will develop a hypothesis about the effect that Wallace’s views and actions had on the image of Alabama and the changes in his character over time.

This lesson was created as a part of the Alabama History Education Initiative, funded by a generous grant from the Malone Family Foundation in 2009.

Author Information: Misty Freeman (Cohort 2: 2010-2011); Rehobeth Elementary; Houston County Schools; Dothan, AL

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

• The student will compare and contrast different perspectives of George C. Wallace as a political figure in Alabama.

• The student will hypothesize how the image of Alabama was affected by Wallace’s views and actions.

• The students will identify common character traits needed to be successful as a boxer and as a politician and how these qualities may change over time.

### National/Other Standards

National Standards for History, 1996 Standards in History for Grades K-4 (p. 29) Topic 2, Standard 3 – The people, events, problems, and ideas that created the history of their state. 3D – The student understands the interactions among all these groups throughout the history of his or her state. 3E – The student understands the ideas that were significant in the development of the state and that helped to forge its unique identity.

Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, (Bulletin 111, 2010) Standard 5: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (p. 78) Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of interactions among individuals, groups, and institutions.

## Technology Timeline! Major Events and Battles of the American Revolution

### Overview

The students will be able to identify certain major events and battle of the American Revolutionary War. Creativity and collaboration are included when making timelines. The students should understand that events happen in chronological order and they can be represented using a timeline.

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

• The students will understand that events happen in chronological order and they can be represented using a timeline.

## Declaring Independence

### Overview

Students will develop an understanding of the purpose of the Declaration of Independence by synthesizing the grievances listed by the founding fathers.

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Lesson Plan

### Primary Learning Objectives

Students will be able to synthesize the grievances cited by colonists in the Declaration of Independence.