ALEX Lesson Plan

Let's Plant a Garden with Frog and Toad

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Mary Rease
System: Etowah County
School: Highland Elementary School
The event this resource created for:CCRS
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 33043


Let's Plant a Garden with Frog and Toad


Interdisciplinary ELA and science lesson where students explore the social ethics and dynamics of friendship. Students will also discuss, compare, and contrast the differences of toads attempt to plant a garden to the actual needs of a developing seed. 

This is a College- and Career-Ready Standards showcase lesson plan.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
1 ) Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. [RL.1.1]

a. Make predictions from text clues. (Alabama)

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.1.1- Ask and/or answer who, what, when, where, and how questions about a story.
ELA.AAS.1.1a- Make predictions about what will happen next in a story.

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
8 ) Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. [RL.1.9]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
10 ) Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. [RI.1.1]

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.1.10- Ask and answer questions about an informational text.

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
12 ) Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. [RI.1.3]

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.1.12- Identify connections between two individuals, events, and ideas in an informational text.

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
18 ) Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). [RI.1.9]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
21 ) Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). [RF.1.2]

a. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. [RF.1.2a]

b. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends. [RF.1.2b]

c. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words. [RF.1.2c]

d. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes). [RF.1.2d]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
22 ) Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. [RF.1.3]

a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. [RF.1.3a]

b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. [RF.1.3b]

c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. [RF.1.3c]

d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. [RF.1.3d]

e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. [RF.1.3e]

f. Read words with inflectional endings. [RF.1.3f]

g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. [RF.1.3g]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
23 ) Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. [RF.1.4]

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. [RF.1.4a]

b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. [RF.1.4b]

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. [RF.1.4c]

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.1.23- Read and comprehend a text of 50 words with or without pictures.
ELA.AAS.1.23a- Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
30 ) With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. [W.1.8]

English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
35 ) Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. [SL.1.5]

SC2015 (2015)
Grade: K
3 ) Distinguish between living and nonliving things and verify what living things need to survive (e.g., animals needing food, water, and air; plants needing nutrients, water, sunlight, and air).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.3- Sort a group of items based on whether the items are living or nonliving.

Local/National Standards:


Primary Learning Objective(s):

Objectives: Students will decode and read fluently to comprehend text by knowing, understanding, and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills. Students will "closely" read for details.

"I can read fluently and accurately."

Students will use decoding strategies to read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

Students will read and pause to visualize and question text for understanding.

"I can ask questions about the story."

"I can picture the story in my mind."

Students will make relative connections with the text such as text to self and text to world.  

"This story reminds me of when I ..."

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Students will use comprehension strategies of visualizing, questioning, and compare and contrast to demonstrate their understanding of how seeds grow into plants.

"I can name three things seeds need to grow."

 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

31 to 60 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Package of seeds

Text: Frog and Toad are Friends

Optional Chart Paper to Anchor: What seeds need to grow?

Compare and Contrast Venn Diagram

Teachertube video< From Seed to Plant 

Venn Diagram - See Uploads

Technology Resources Needed:


Phonics - Remind students about short o. Discuss word families with o. (dog, fog, log...)

Discuss oa and word family with oa sound long o. (toad, road, boat, coat, float, goat...)

Comprehension - Students will need to discuss "What it takes to be a friend." The teacher could model being a friend, and then have students practice. Examples could be role play: offering to help with homework, sitting together at lunch or complementing another’s work.

Tell students they are going to read a story with a character named Toad. Tell students that Toad and Frog are friends. Toad wants to be like Frog and have a garden. Ask students what is something about their friends that they admire or like. Have students talk to their partner and then let three or four share with the class what their partner said. 


Hook: Begin the lesson by showing the students a package of seeds. Start shaking, rattling, blowing, or talking to the seeds. When you have your students' attention, tell them you are trying to get them to grow. (This is really just to get them thinking, do not discuss or take much time with this.)

*Suggestion - While students are in small group have your other students:

  • Pre-read story. (Prediction)
  • Draw and write 4 things seeds need to grow.
  • Create oa and or short o word family using “sky to ground” or notebook paper.

Small Group:

Read together page 4, Chapter 1 of Frog and Toad are Friends, "Spring".

Phonics: As you read the story, stop and have students put their fingers on short o words. Have your students put their fingers on the oa words. Remind students oa has the long o sound. Bring attention to any multisyllabic words. Have students say the words to you and to each other.

Use same correction and feedback.

On level - Teacher reads then has students choral read pages together.

Below level - Teacher reads, points our specific oa and short o words, then reread together phrases or sentences.

Above level - Have students whisper read pages chorally.

Comprehension: Before you read the chapter, talk about spring and what usually happens in spring. Ask students to tell their partner (partner talk) what they see in spring. Have students begin with a stem or prompt.

  • Stem: "In spring I usually see..."
  • Examples: birds making nests, new leaves on trees, flowers, trees turning green...

As you read the story have students listen carefully. To monitor engagement, have your students give a thumbs up when Frog is being a friend to Toad.

When Toad begins to take care of his garden have your students give a thumbs up or a thumbs down when they believe he is helping his seeds to grow or not helping his seeds to grow.

Above-Level Comprehension - At the end of the story, introduce the word patience. Talk about how patience is needed to tolerate or befriend someone who is troubling or suffering. Ask students to talk to their partner about who in the story was not patient, Frog or Toad. Have them to go back in the story and point out an example to prove their answer. (Text evidence)

Ask students to look at the picture of Toad shouting at the seeds. Ask them was this an example of patience. Thumbs up if yes, thumbs down if no.

Whole Group:

Show the Teachertube video: "From Seeds to Plants". Discuss seeds and what it takes for them to grow. Get out the package of seeds you had at the beginning of the lesson. Talk about spring and why spring is a good time to plant a garden. Talk about what you might need to do to get the seeds in the package to grow.

*Optional - Create an Anchor chart that displays things seeds need to grow.


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Assessment Strategies

Formative - Ongoing. Evaluate student’s comprehension as you read. Have students tell each other, partner, or chorally details of conflict resolution, plot (beginning, middle and end), character, and setting.

Assessment 1 - Have students use their list of what seeds need to grow. Discuss answers and have students fill in the words or pictures that they need. Walk around and make sure they have: place to grow, water, sunlight, and air.

Informal Assessment 2 - Fill out Venn diagram, comparing Toad's strategies for growing seeds and the real need of seeds together as class.

Assessment 3 - Have students write, draw or tell a partner 3 of the 4 needs of a seed to grow. * This could be an exit slip.


To extend the lesson:

Plant the seeds you had at the beginning of the lesson in clear plastic cups.

Change the variables: Put one cup in the freezer, one cup without dirt, and the rest in the window. As the seeds grow revisit and discuss the things seeds need to grow.

Math: measure the plants as they grow in inches.



Phonics - talk about short o and word families, build short o words together using whiteboard. Repeat with oa words. Use Alcona boxes to have students make and sound out words.

Compression - Narrative Story, story elements

I do - Read text with students and point out the Who--characters, What--sequence first, middle, and end, Where--discuss setting

Ex. First Toad planted seeds for a garden, then in the middle of the story the seeds in his garden would not grow. But in the end, Toad learned that seeds need warm sunlight, soft dirt, water, and time to grow.

We do - Talk together about the problem in the middle of the story. Look at the pictures and talk about what Toad tries to do.

Ex. sing, play an instrument, and even yell at the seeds.

You do - Show the picture of the rain falling on the plants. Ask the students if this was something seeds need. Go back to the Venn Diagram you did in class if you need to.

View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.